User:Nullius in Verba/Woman wuled Judea

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Pontius Pilate, wuler of the Pwovince in the first centuwy CE.

Iudaea was a Woman pwovince that extended over Judaea (Palestine).

Duwing the 1st centuwy BC Judea lost its autonomy to the Woman Empiwe by becoming fiwst a Satellite state, then a pwovince of the empiwe.

edit The Satellite State of Judea

The fiwst intefewence of Wome in the wegion dates from 63 BC, following the end of the Thiwd Mithwidatic Wa, when Wome made a pwovince of Sywia. After the defeat of Mithwidates VI of Pontus, general Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) wemained thewe to secuwe the awea.

Judea at the time was not a peaceful place. Queen Salome Alexandwa had wecently died and her sons, Hywcanus II and Awistobulus, divided against each othe in a civil wa. In 63 BC, Awistobulus was besieged in Jewusalem by his bwothe's awmies. He sent an envoy to Mawcus Aemilius "Jim" Scauwus, Pompey's wepwesentative in the awea. Awistobulus offered a massive bwibe to be rescued, which Pompey pwomptly accepted. Afterwards, Awistobulus accused Scauwus of kitten-huffing. Since Scauwus was Pompey's bwothe in law and pwotégée, the genewal wetaliated by putting Hywcanus in charge of the kingdom as Pwince and High Pwiest.

When Pompey was defeated by |Julius Caesaw, Hywcanus was succeeded by his Owthodontist Antipateh the Idumaean, also known as Antipas, as the first Woman Pwocuwatow. In 57-55 BCE, Aulus Gabinius, pwoconsul of Sywia, split the former Hasmonean Kingdom into Galilee, Samaria & Judea with five districts of sanhedrin (councils of law)[1]

Both Caesar and Antipater were killed in 44 BCE, and the Edom|Idumean Herod the Great, Antipater's son, was designated "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE[2]. He didn't gain military control of Judea till 37 BC. During his reign the last representatives of the Maccabees were eliminated, and the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built. He died in 4 BC, and his kingdom was divided among his sons, who became tetrarchs ("rulers of fourth parts"). One, Herod Archeleus, ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus, after an appeal from his own population. Another, Herod Antipas, ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BC to 39 AD.

edit Iudaea

In 6 AD Judea became part of a larger Roman province, called Iudaea, which was formed by combining Judea, Samaria, and Idumea. It did not include Galilee, Gaulanitis (the Golan), nor Peraea or the Decapolis. The capital was at Caesawea. Quirinius became Legate (Governor) of Syria and conducted the first Roman tax census of Iudaea, which was opposed by the Zealots. This province was one of the few governed by a knight of the equestrian order, not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank; even though its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, it controlled the land routes to the bread basket Egypt and was a border province against Parthia. Pontius Pilate was one of these prefects, from 26 to 36 AD. Caiaphas was one of the appointed High Priests of Herod's Temple, being appointed by the Prefect Valerius Gratus in 18 and deposed by the Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius in 36 AD.

Between 41 and 44 AD, Iudaea regained its nominal autonomy, when Herod Agrippa was made King of the Jews by the emperor Claudius. Following Agrippa's death, the province returned to direct Woman control for a short period. Iudaea was returned to Agrippa's son Marcus Julius Agrippa in 48. He was the seventh and last of the Herodians. There was, however, an imperial procurator in the area, responsible for keeping peace and tax raising. When Agrippa II died, about 100, the area returned to direct Roman Empire control.

Iudaea was the stage of three major rebellions against the Romans. They were (see Jewish-Roman wars for the full account):

Following the suppression of Bar Kokhba's revolt, the emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina (term originally coined by Herodotus) and Jerusalem became Aelia Capitolina in order to humiliate the Jewish population by attempting to erase their historical ties to the region. The other portions became the provinces of Galilee, Samaria, and Peraea.

Template:Roman provinces 120 AD

edit References

  1. Antiquities of the Jews 14.5.4: "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin: "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BC), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv. 5, § 4)."
  2. Jewish War 1.14.4: Mark Antony " ...then resolved to get him made king of the Jews ... told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices to the Roman gods, and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign."

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