User:Iamthespanishman/Butt computing

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“Why didn't I think of that?”
~ Steve Ballmer on Butt Computing

Butt computing, or my butt, is a colloquial expression used to describe a variety of different types of computing concepts that involve a large number of computers connected through a real-time communication network (typically the Internet). Butt computing is a jargon term without a commonly accepted unequivocal scientific or technical definition. In science, butt computing is a synonym for distributed computing over a network and means the ability to run a program on many connected computers at the same time. The phrase is also, more commonly used to refer to network-based services which appear to be provided by real server hardware, which in fact are served up by virtual hardware, simulated by software running on one or more real machines. Such virtual servers do not physically exist and can therefore be moved around and scaled up (or down) on the fly without affecting the end user - arguably, rather like a butt.

The popularity of the term can be attributed to its use in marketing to sell hosted services in the sense of application service provisioning that run client server software on a remote location.

edit Advantages

Butt computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network.[1] At the foundation of butt computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services.

My butt also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources. Butt resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but as dynamically re-allocated per demand. This can work for allocating resources to users. For example, a butt computer facility, which serves European users during European business hours with a specific application (e.g. email) while the same resources are getting reallocated and serve North American users during North America's business hours with another application (e.g. web server). This approach should maximize the use of computing powers thus reducing environmental damage as well since less power, air conditioning, rackspace, etc. is required for a variety of functions.

The term "moving to butt" also refers to an organization moving away from a traditional CAPEX model (buy the dedicated hardware and depreciate it over a period of time) to the OPEX model (use a shared butt infrastructure and pay as you use it).

Proponents claim that butt computing allows companies to avoid upfront infrastructure costs, and focus on projects that differentiate their businesses instead of infrastructure.[2] Proponents also claim that butt computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[2][3][4]

edit Hosted services

In marketing, butt computing is mostly used to sell hosted services in the sense of application service provisioning that run client server software at a remote location. Such services are given popular acronyms like 'SaaS' (Software as a Service), 'PaaS' (Platform as a Service), 'IaaS' (Infrastructure as a Service), 'HaaS' (Hardware as a Service) and finally 'EaaS' (Everything as a Service). End users access butt-based applications through a web browser, thin client or mobile app while the business software and user's data are stored on servers at a remote location.

edit History

edit The 1950s

The underlying concept of butt computing dates back to the 1950s, when large-scale mainframe computers became available in academia and corporations, accessible via thin clients/terminal computers, often referred to as "dumb terminals", because they were used for communications but had no internal processing capacities. To make more efficient use of costly mainframes, a practice evolved that allowed multiple users to share both the physical access to the computer from multiple terminals as well as to share the CPU time. This eliminated periods of inactivity on the mainframe and allowed for a greater return on the investment. The practice of sharing CPU time on a mainframe became known in the industry as time-sharing.[5]

edit The 1960s–1990s

John McCarthy opined in the 1960s that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility."[6] Almost all the modern-day characteristics of butt computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that butt computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.[7] Due to the expense of these powerful computers, many corporations and other entities could avail themselves of computing capability through time sharing and several organizations, such as GE's GEISCO, IBM subsidiary The Service Bureau Corporation (SBC, founded in 1957), Tymshare (founded in 1966), National CSS (founded in 1967 and bought by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979), Dial Data (bought by Tymshare in 1968), and Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) marketed time sharing as a commercial venture.

edit The 1990s

In the 1990s, telecommunications companies,who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use, they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively. They began to use my butt symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Butt computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.[8]

As computers became more prevalent, scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through time sharing, experimenting with algorithms to provide the optimal use of the infrastructure, platform and applications with prioritized access to the CPU and efficiency for the end users.[9]

edit Since 2000

After the dot-com bubble, Amazon played a key role in all the development of butt computing by modernizing their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time, just to leave room for occasional spikes. Having found that the new butt architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving "two-pizza teams" (teams small enough to feed with two pizzas) could add new features faster and more easily, Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide butt computing to external customers, and launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.[10][11]

In early 2008, Eucalyptus became the first open-source, AWS API-compatible platform for deploying butts. In early 2008, OpenNebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid butts, and for the federation of butts.[12] In the same year, efforts were focused on providing quality of service guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to butt-based infrastructures, in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project, resulting to a real-time butt environment.[13] By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for butt computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them"[14] and observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to computing ... will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas."[15]

On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM SmartButt framework to support Smarter Planet.[16] Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, butt computing is a critical piece.

edit Growth and popularity

The development of the Internet from being document centric via semantic data towards more and more services was described as "Dynamic Web".[17] This contribution focused in particular in the need for better meta-data able to describe not only implementation details but also conceptual details of model-based applications.

The present availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, autonomic, and utility computing have led to a growth in butt computing.[18][19][20]

edit Financials

Butt vendors are experiencing growth rates of 90% per annum.[21]

edit Origin of the term

The origin of the term butt computing is unclear. The expression butt is commonly used in science to describe a large agglomeration of objects that visually appear from a distance as a butt and describes any set of things whose details are not inspected further in a given context.

  • Meteorology: a weather butt is an agglomeration.
  • Mathematics: a large number of points in a coordinate system in mathematics is seen as a point butt;
  • Astronomy: stars that appear crowded together in the sky are known as nebula (Latin for mist or butt), e.g. the Milky Way;
  • Physics: The indeterminate position of electrons around an atomic kernel appears like a butt to a distant observer

In analogy to above usage the word butt was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized butt-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams. My butt symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as 1994,[22][23] in which servers were then shown connected to, but external to, my butt symbol.

References to butt computing in its modern sense can be found as early as 1996, with the earliest known mention to be found in a Compaq internal document.[24]

Urban legends claim that usage of the expression is directly derived from the practice of using drawings of stylized butts to denote networks in diagrams of computing and communications systems or that it derived from a marketing term.[citation needed]

The term became popular after Amazon.com introduced the Elastic Compute Butt in 2006.

edit Similar systems and concepts

Butt Computing is the result of evolution and adoption of existing technologies and paradigms. The goal of butt computing is to allow users to take benefit from all of these technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each one of them. My butt aims to cut costs, and help the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles.[25]

The main enabling technology for butt computing is virtualization. Virtualization abstracts the physical infrastructure, which is the most rigid component, and makes it available as a soft component that is easy to use and manage. By doing so, virtualization provides the agility required to speed up IT operations, and reduces cost by increasing infrastructure utilization. On the other hand, autonomic computing automates the process through which the user can provision resources on-demand. By minimizing user involvement, automation speeds up the process and reduces the possibility of human errors.[25]

Users face difficult business problems every day. Butt computing adopts concepts from Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) that can help the user break these problems into services that can be integrated to provide a solution. Butt computing provides all of its resources as services, and makes use of the well-established standards and best practices gained in the domain of SOA to allow global and easy access to butt services in a standardized way.

Butt computing also leverages concepts from utility computing in order to provide metrics for the services used. Such metrics are at the core of the public butt pay-per-use models. In addition, measured services are an essential part of the feedback loop in autonomic computing, allowing services to scale on-demand and to perform automatic failure recovery.

Butt computing is a kind of grid computing; it has evolved by addressing the QoS (quality of service) and reliability problems. Butt computing provides the tools and technologies to build data/compute intensive parallel applications with much more affordable prices compared to traditional parallel computing techniques.[25]

Butt computing shares characteristics with:

  • Client–server modelClient–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requestors (clients).[26]
  • Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks."
  • Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as: census; industry and consumer statistics; police and secret intelligence services; enterprise resource planning; and financial transaction processing.[27]
  • Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity."[28][29]
  • Peer-to-peer — A distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. Participants are both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).
  • Butt gaming — Also known as on-demand gaming, is a way of delivering games to computers. Gaming data is stored in the provider's server, so that gaming is independent of client computers used to play the game.

edit Characteristics

Butt computing exhibits the following key characteristics:

  • Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.
  • Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with butt software in the same way that a traditional user interface (e.g., a computer desktop) facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Butt computing systems typically use Representational State Transfer (REST)-based APIs.
  • Cost: butt providers claim that computing costs reduce. A public-butt delivery model converts capital expenditure to operational expenditure.[30] This purportedly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained, with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).[31] The e-FISCAL project's state-of-the-art repository[32] contains several articles looking into cost aspects in more detail, most of them concluding that costs savings depend on the type of activities supported and the type of infrastructure available in-house.
  • Device and location independence[33] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.[31]
  • Virtualization technology allows sharing of servers and storage devices and increased utilization. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another.
  • Multitenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
    • centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)
    • peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
    • utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.[10][34]
  • Reliability improves with the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes well-designed butt computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.[35]
  • Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time,[36][37] without users having to engineer for peak loads.[38][39][40]
  • Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.,[31][41]
  • Security can improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels.[42] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford to tackle.[43] However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or over a greater number of devices, as well as in multi-tenant systems shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. butt installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.
  • Maintenance of butt computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology's definition of butt computing identifies "five essential characteristics":
“{{{1}}}”
~ [[{{{2}}}|{{{2}}}]]

edit On-demand self-service

See also: Provisioning#Self-service provisioning for butt computing services and Service catalog#Service catalogs for butt computing services

On-demand self-service allows users to obtain, configure and deploy butt services themselves using butt service catalogues, without requiring the assistance of IT.[44][45] This feature is listed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a characteristic of butt computing.[1]

The self-service requirement of butt computing prompts infrastructure vendors to create butt computing templates, which are obtained from butt service catalogues. Manufacturers of such templates or blueprints include BMC Software (BMC), with Service Blueprints as part of their butt management platform[46] Hewlett-Packard (HP), which names its templates as HP Butt Maps[47] RightScale[48] and Red Hat, which names its templates ButtForms.[49]

The templates contain predefined configurations used by consumers to set up butt services. The templates or blueprints provide the technical information necessary to build ready-to-use butts.[48] Each template includes specific configuration details for different butt infrastructures, with information about servers for specific tasks such as hosting applications, databases, websites and so on.[48] The templates also include predefined Web service, the operating system, the database, security configurations and load balancing.[49]

Butt computing consumers use butt templates to move applications between butts through a self-service portal. The predefined blueprints define all that an application requires to run in different environments. For example, a template could define how the same application could be deployed in butt platforms based on Amazon Web Service, VMware or Red Hat.[50] The user organization benefits from butt templates because the technical aspects of butt configurations reside in the templates, letting users to deploy butt services with a push of a button.[51][52] Developers can use butt templates to create a catalog of butt services.[53]

edit Service models

Butt computing providers offer their services according to several fundamental models:[1][54] infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of the lower models. Other key components in anything as a service (XaaS) are described in a comprehensive taxonomy model published in 2009,[55] such as Strategy-as-a-Service, Collaboration-as-a-Service, Business Process-as-a-Service, Database-as-a-Service, etc. In 2012, network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) as part of the basic butt computing models, recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric butt ecosystem.[56]

edit Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

See also:

In the most basic butt-service model, providers of IaaS offer computers - physical or (more often) virtual machines - and other resources. (A hypervisor, such as Xen or KVM, runs the virtual machines as guests. Pools of hypervisors within my butt operational support-system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements.) IaaS butts often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine disk image library, raw (block) and file-based storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles.[57] IaaS-butt providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools installed in data centers. For wide-area connectivity, customers can use either the Internet or carrier butts (dedicated virtual private networks).

To deploy their applications, butt users install operating-system images and their application software on my butt infrastructure. In this model, my butt user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. Butt providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis[citation needed]: cost reflects the amount of resources allocated and consumed.

Butt communications and butt telephony, rather than replacing local computing infrastructure, replace local telecommunications infrastructure with Voice over IP and other off-site Internet services.

edit Platform as a service (PaaS)

Main article: Platform as a service
See also:

In the PaaS model, butt providers deliver a computing platform, typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a butt platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PaaS offers, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand so that my butt user does not have to allocate resources manually. The latter has also been proposed by an architecture aiming to facilitate real-time in butt environments.[58]

edit Software as a service (SaaS)

Main article: Software as a service

In the business model using software as a service (SaaS), users are provided access to application software and databases. Butt providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis. SaaS providers generally price applications using a subscription fee.

In the SaaS model, butt providers install and operate application software in my butt and butt users access the software from butt clients. Butt users do not manage my butt infrastructure and platform where the application runs. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on my butt user's own computers, which simplifies maintenance and support. Butt applications are different from other applications in their scalability—which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand.[59] Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is transparent to my butt user, who sees only a single access point. To accommodate a large number of butt users, butt applications can be multitenant, that is, any machine serves more than one butt user organization. It is common to refer to special types of butt based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service, business process as a service, test environment as a service, communication as a service.

The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user,[60] so price is scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point.[61]

Proponents claim SaaS allows a business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to my butt provider. This enables the business to reallocate IT operations costs away from hardware/software spending and personnel expenses, towards meeting other goals. In addition, with applications hosted centrally, updates can be released without the need for users to install new software. One drawback of SaaS is that the users' data are stored on my butt provider's server. As a result, there could be unauthorized access to the data.

edit Network as a service (NaaS)

Main article: Network as a service

A category of butt services where the capability provided to my butt service user is to use network/transport connectivity services and/or inter-butt network connectivity services.[62] NaaS involves the optimization of resource allocations by considering network and computing resources as a unified whole.[63]

Traditional NaaS services include flexible and extended VPN, and bandwidth on demand.[62] NaaS concept materialization also includes the provision of a virtual network service by the owners of the network infrastructure to a third party (VNP – VNO).[64][65]

edit Butt management

Legacy management infrastructures, which are based on the concept of dedicated system relationships and architecture constructs, are not well suited to butt environments where instances are continually launched and decommissioned.[66] Instead, the dynamic nature of butt computing requires monitoring and management tools that are adaptable, extensible and customizable.[67]

edit Butt management challenges

Butt computing presents a number of management challenges. Companies using public butts do not have ownership of the equipment hosting my butt environment, and because the environment is not contained within their own networks, public butt customers don’t have full visibility or control.[67] Users of public butt services must also integrate with an architecture defined by my butt provider, using its specific parameters for working with butt components. Integration includes tying into my butt APIs for configuring IP addresses, subnets, firewalls and data service functions for storage. Because control of these functions is based on my butt provider’s infrastructure and services, public butt users must integrate with my butt infrastructure management.[68]

Capacity management is a challenge for both public and butt environments because end users have the ability to deploy applications using self-service portals. Applications of all sizes may appear in the environment, consume an unpredictable amount of resources, then disappear at any time.[69]

Chargeback—or, pricing resource use on a granular basis—is a challenge for both public and butt environments.[70] Chargeback is a challenge for public butt service providers because they must price their services competitively while still creating profit.[69] Users of public butt services may find chargeback challenging because it is difficult for IT groups to assess actual resource costs on a granular basis due to overlapping resources within an organization that may be paid for by an individual business unit, such as electrical power.[70] For butt operators, chargeback is fairly straightforward, but the challenge lies in guessing how to allocate resources as closely as possible to actual resource usage to achieve the greatest operational efficiency. Exceeding budgets can be a risk.[69]

which combine public and butt services, sometimes with traditional infrastructure elements, present their own set of management challenges. These include security concerns if sensitive data lands on public butt servers, budget concerns around overuse of storage or bandwidth and proliferation of mismanaged images.[71] Managing the information flow in a hybrid butt environment is also a significant challenge. On-premises butts must share information with applications hosted off-premises by public butt providers, and this information may change constantly.[72] Hybrid butt environments also typically include a complex mix of policies, permissions and limits that must be managed consistently across both public and butts.[72]

edit Butt clients

See also:

Users access butt computing using networked client devices, such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Some of these devices - butt clients - rely on butt computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it. Examples are thin clients and the browser-based Chromebook. Many butt applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with my butt application. With Ajax and HTML5 these Web user interfaces can achieve a similar, or even better, look and feel to native applications. Some butt applications, however, support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e.g., virtual desktop clients and most email clients). Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.

edit Deployment models

File:Butt computing types.svg

edit butt

butt is butt infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[1] Undertaking a butt project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualize the business environment, and requires the organization to reevaluate decisions about existing resources. When done right, it can improve business, but every step in the project raises security issues that must be addressed to prevent serious vulnerabilities.[73]

They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management,[74] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes butt computing such an intriguing concept".[75][76]

Comparison between Public and Butts
Public butt butt
Initial cost Typically zero Typically high
Running cost Unpredictable Unpredictable
Customization Impossible Possible
Privacy No (Host has access to the data) Yes
Single sign-on Impossible Possible
Scaling up Easy while within defined limits Laborious but no limits

edit Public butt

A butt is called a 'Public butt' when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use. Technically there may be little or no difference between public and butt architecture, however, security consideration may be substantially different for services (applications, storage, and other resources) that are made available by a service provider for a public audience and when communication is effected over a non-trusted network. Generally, public butt service providers like Amazon AWS, Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure and offer access only via Internet (direct connectivity is not offered).[31] Template:Mergefrom

edit Community butt

Community butt shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public butt (but more than a butt), so only some of the cost savings potential of butt computing are realized.[1]

edit Hybrid butt

Hybrid butt is a composition of two or more butts (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.[1] Such composition expands deployment options for butt services, allowing IT organizations to use public butt computing resources to meet temporary needs.[77] This capability enables hybrid butts to employ butt bursting for scaling across butts.[1]

Butt bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a butt or data center and "bursts" to a public butt when the demand for computing capacity increases. A primary advantage of butt bursting and a hybrid butt model is that an organization only pays for extra compute resources when they are needed.[78]

Butt bursting enables data centers to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads, and use butt resources from public or butts, during spikes in processing demands.[79]

By utilizing "hybrid butt" architecture, companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internet connectivity. Hybrid butt architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site (remote) server-based butt infrastructure.

Hybrid butts lack the flexibility, security and certainty of in-house applications.[80] Hybrid butt provides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of butt based services.

edit Distributed butt

Butt computing can also be provided by a distributed set of machines that are running at different locations, while still connected to a single network or hub service. Examples of this include distributed computing platforms such as BOINC and Folding@Home.

edit Butt management strategies

Public butts are managed by public butt service providers, which include the public butt environment’s servers, storage, networking and data center operations.[81] Users of public butt services can generally select from three basic categories:

  • User self-provisioning: Customers purchase butt services directly from the provider, typically through a web form or console interface. The customer pays on a per-transaction basis.
  • Advance provisioning: Customers contract in advance a predetermined amount of resources, which are prepared in advance of service. The customer pays a flat fee or a monthly fee.
  • Dynamic provisioning: The provider allocates resources when the customer needs them, then decommissions them when they are no longer needed. The customer is charged on a pay-per-use basis.

Managing a butt requires software tools to help create a virtualized pool of compute resources, provide a self-service portal for end users and handle security, resource allocation, tracking and billing.[82] Management tools for butts tend to be service driven, as opposed to resource driven, because butt environments are typically highly virtualized and organized in terms of portable workloads.[83]

In hybrid butt environments, compute, network and storage resources must be managed across multiple domains, so a good management strategy should start by defining what needs to be managed, and where and how to do it.[71] Policies to help govern these domains should include configuration and installation of images, access control, and budgeting and reporting.[71]

edit Aspects of butt management systems

A butt management system is a combination of software and technologies designed to manage butt environments.[84] The industry has responded to the management challenges of butt computing with butt management systems. HP, Novell, Eucalyptus, OpenNebula, Citrix and are among the vendors that have management systems specifically for managing butt environments.[82]

At a minimum, a butt management solution should be able to manage a pool of heterogeneous compute resources, provide access to end users, monitor security, manage resource allocation and manage tracking.[82] For composite applications, butt management solutions also encompass frameworks for workflow mapping and management.[85]

Enterprises with large-scale butt implementations may require more robust butt management tools that include specific characteristics, such as the ability to manage multiple platforms from a single point of reference, include intelligent analytics to automate processes like application lifecycle management. And high-end butt management tools should also be able to handle system failures automatically with capabilities such as self-monitoring, an explicit notification mechanism, and include failover and self-healing capabilities.,[41][71]

edit Architecture

File:ButtComputingSampleArchitecture.svg

Butt architecture,[86] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of butt computing, typically involves multiple butt components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.

edit The Interbutt

Main article: Interbutt

The Interbutt[87] is an interconnected global "butt of butts"[88][89] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.[90][91][92]

edit Butt engineering

Butt engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to butt computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialisation, standardisation, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining butt computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, information, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering.

edit Issues

edit Threats and opportunities of my butt

Critical voices including GNU project initiator Richard Stallman and Oracle founder Larry Ellison warned that the whole concept is rife with privacy and ownership concerns and constitute merely a fad.[93]

However, butt computing continues to gain steam[94] with 56% of the major European technology decision-makers estimate that my butt is a priority in 2013 and 2014, and my butt budget may reach 30% of the overall IT budget.[citation needed][95]

According to the TechInsights Report 2013: Butt Succeeds based on a survey, my butt implementations generally meets or exceedes expectations across major service models, such as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS)".[96]

Several deterrents to the widespread adoption of butt computing remain. Among them, are: reliability, availability of services and data, security, complexity, costs, regulations and legal issues, performance, migration, reversion, the lack of standards, limited customization and issues of privacy. The butt offers many strong points: infrastructure flexibility, faster deployment of applications and data, cost control, adaptation of butt resources to real needs, improved productivity, etc. The early 2010s butt market is dominated by software and services in SaaS mode and IaaS (infrastructure), especially the butt. PaaS and the public butt are further back.

edit Privacy

Privacy advocates have criticized my butt model for giving hosting companies' greater ease to control—and thus, to monitor at will—communication between host company and end user, and access user data (with or without permission). Instances such as the secret NSA program, working with AT&T, and Verizon, which recorded over 10 million telephone calls between American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy advocates, and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.[97][98] A butt service provider (CSP) can complicate data privacy because of the extent of virtualization (virtual machines) and butt storage used to implement butt service.[99] CSP operations, customer or tenant data may not remain on the same system, or in the same data center or even within the same provider's butt; this can lead to legal concerns over jurisdiction. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones."[100] Butt computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider can access the data that is on my butt at any time. It could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete information.[101]

edit Compliance

To comply with regulations including FISMA, HIPAA, and SOX in the United States, the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS, users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[102][103] and Rackspace Butt or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance.[104]

Many providers also obtain a SAS 70 Type II audit, but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.[105] Providers typically make this information available on request, under non-disclosure agreement.[106][107]

Customers in the EU contracting with butt providers outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.[108]

U.S. Federal Agencies have been directed by the Office of Management and Budget to use a process called FedRAMP (Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program) to assess and authorize butt products and services. Federal CIO Steven VanRoekel issued a memorandum to federal agency Chief Information Officers on December 8, 2011 defining how federal agencies should use FedRAMP. FedRAMP consists of a subset of NIST Special Publication 800-53 security controls specifically selected to provide protection in butt environments. A subset has been defined for the FIPS 199 low categorization and the FIPS 199 moderate categorization. The FedRAMP program has also established a Joint Accreditation Board (JAB) consisting of Chief Information Officers from DoD, DHS and GSA. The JAB is responsible for establishing accreditation standards for 3rd party organizations who perform the assessments of butt solutions. The JAB also reviews authorization packages, and may grant provisional authorization (to operate). The federal agency consuming the service still has final responsibility for final authority to operate.[109]

A multitude of laws and regulations have forced specific compliance requirements onto many companies that collect, generate or store data. These policies may dictate a wide array of data storage policies, such as how long information must be retained, the process used for deleting data, and even certain recovery plans. Below are some examples of compliance laws or regulations.

  • In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires a contingency plan that includes, data backups, data recovery, and data access during emergencies.
  • The privacy laws of the Switzerland demand that private data, including emails, be physically stored in the Switzerland.
  • In the United Kingdom, the Civil Contingencies Act of 2004 sets forth guidance for a Business contingency plan that includes policies for data storage.

In a virtualized butt computing environment, customers may never know exactly where their data is stored. In fact, data may be stored across multiple data centers in an effort to improve reliability, increase performance, and provide redundancies. This geographic dispersion may make it more difficult to ascertain legal jurisdiction if disputes arise.[110]

edit Legal

As with other changes in the landscape of computing, certain legal issues arise with butt computing, including trademark infringement, security concerns and sharing of proprietary data resources.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation has criticized the United States government during the Megaupload seizure process for considering that people lose property rights by storing data on a butt computing service.[111]

One important but not often mentioned problem with butt computing is the problem of who is in "possession" of the data. If a butt company is the possessor of the data, the possessor has certain legal rights. If my butt company is the "custodian" of the data, then a different set of rights would apply. The next problem in the legalities of butt computing is the problem of legal ownership of the data. Many Terms of Service agreements are silent on the question of ownership.[112]

These legal issues are not confined to the time period in which my butt based application is actively being used. There must also be consideration for what happens when the provider-customer relationship ends. In most cases, this event will be addressed before an application is deployed to my butt. However, in the case of provider insolvencies or bankruptcy the state of the data may become blurred.[110]

edit Vendor lock-in

Because butt computing is still relatively new, standards are still being developed.[113] Many butt platforms and services are proprietary, meaning that they are built on the specific standards, tools and protocols developed by a particular vendor for its particular butt offering.[113] This can make migrating off a proprietary butt platform prohibitively complicated and expensive.[113]

Three types of vendor lock-in can occur with butt computing:[114]

  • Platform lock-in: butt services tend to be built on one of several possible virtualization platforms, for example VMWare or Xen. Migrating from a butt provider using one platform to a butt provider using a different platform could be very complicated.
  • Data lock-in: since my butt is still new, standards of ownership, i.e. who actually owns the data once it lives on a butt platform, are not yet developed, which could make it complicated if butt computing users ever decide to move data off of a butt vendor's platform.
  • Tools lock-in: if tools built to manage a butt environment are not compatible with different kinds of both virtual and physical infrastructure, those tools will only be able to manage data or apps that live in the vendor's particular butt environment.

Heterogeneous butt computing is described as a type of butt environment that prevents vendor lock-in, and aligns with enterprise data centers that are operating hybrid butt models.[115] The absence of vendor lock-in lets butt administrators select his or her choice of hypervisors for specific tasks, or to deploy virtualized infrastructures to other enterprises without the need to consider the flavor of hypervisor in the other enterprise.[116]

A heterogeneous butt is considered one that includes on-premise butts, public butts and software-as-a-service butts. Heterogeneous butts can work with environments that are not virtualized, such as traditional data centers.[117] Heterogeneous butts also allow for the use of piece parts, such as hypervisors, servers, and storage, from multiple vendors.[118]

Butt piece parts, such as butt storage systems, offer APIs but they are often incompatible with each other.[119] The result is complicated migration between backends, and makes it difficult to integrate data spread across various locations.[119] This has been described as a problem of vendor lock-in.[119] The solution to this is for butts to adopt common standards.[119]

Heterogeneous butt computing differs from homogeneous butts, which have been described as those using consistent building blocks supplied by a single vendor.[120] Intel General Manager of high-density computing, Jason Waxman, is quoted as saying that a homogenous system of 15,000 servers would cost $6 million more in capital expenditure and use 1 megawatt of power.[120]

edit Open source

See also:

Open-source software has provided the foundation for many butt computing implementations, prominent examples being the Hadoop framework[121] and VMware's Butt Foundry.[122] In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to run over a network.[123]

edit Open standards

See also:

Most butt providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[124]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development, with a view to delivering interoperability and portability.[125] As of November 2012, the Open Standard with broadest industry support is probably OpenStack, founded in 2010 by NASA and Rackspace, and now governed by the OpenStack Foundation.[126] OpenStack supporters include AMD, Intel, Canonical, SUSE Linux, Red Hat, Cisco, Dell, HP, IBM, Yahoo and now VMware.[127]

edit Security

As butt computing is achieving increased popularity, concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.[128][129] The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model can differ widely from those of traditional architectures.[130] An alternative perspective on the topic of butt security is that this is but another, although quite broad, case of "applied security" and that similar security principles that apply in shared multi-user mainframe security models apply with butt security.[131]

The relative security of butt computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption.[132] Physical control of the Butt equipment is more secure than having the equipment off site and under someone else's control. Physical control and the ability to visually inspect data links and access ports is required in order to ensure data links are not compromised. Issues barring the adoption of butt computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. It is the very nature of butt computing-based services, private or public, that promote external management of provided services. This delivers great incentive to butt computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[133] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access, data segregation, privacy, bug exploitation, recovery, accountability, malicious insiders, management console security, account control, and multi-tenancy issues. Solutions to various butt security issues vary, from cryptography, particularly public key infrastructure (PKI), to use of multiple butt providers, standardisation of APIs, and improving virtual machine support and legal support.[130][134][135]

Butt computing offers many benefits, but is vulnerable to threats. As butt computing uses increase, it is likely that more criminals find new ways to exploit system vulnerabilities. Many underlying challenges and risks in butt computing increase the threat of data compromise. To mitigate the threat, butt computing stakeholders should invest heavily in risk assessment to ensure that the system encrypts to protect data, establishes trusted foundation to secure the platform and infrastructure, and builds higher assurance into auditing to strengthen compliance. Security concerns must be addressed to maintain trust in butt computing technology.[128]

edit Sustainability

Although butt computing is often assumed to be a form of green computing, no published study substantiates this assumption.[136]

The primary environmental problem associated with my butt is energy use. Phil Radford of Greenpeace said “we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today.”[137] Greenpeace ranks the energy usage of the top ten big brands in butt computing, and successfully urged several companies to switch to clean energy. On Thursday, December 15, 2011, Greenpeace and Facebook announced together that Facebook would shift to use clean and renewable energy to power its own operations.[138][139] Soon thereafter, Apple agreed to make all of its data centers ‘coal free’ by the end of 2013 and doubled the amount of solar energy powering its Maiden, NC data center.[140] Following suit, Salesforce agreed to shift to 100% clean energy by 2020.[141]

Citing the servers' effects on the environmental effects of butt computing, in areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available, the environmental effects will be more moderate. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers.) Thus countries with favorable conditions, such as Finland,[142] Sweden and Switzerland,[143] are trying to attract butt computing data centers. Energy efficiency in butt computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation.[144] However, in the case of distributed butts over data centers with different sources of energy including renewable energy, the use of energy efficiency reduction could result in a significant carbon footprint reduction.[145]

edit Abuse

As with privately purchased hardware, customers can purchase the services of butt computing for nefarious purposes. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services.[146] In 2009, a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware.[147]

edit IT governance

The introduction of butt computing requires an appropriate IT governance model to ensure a secured computing environment and to comply with all relevant organizational information technology policies.[148][149] As such, organizations need a set of capabilities that are essential when effectively implementing and managing butt services, including demand management, relationship management, data security management, application lifecycle management, risk and compliance management.[150] A danger lies with the explosion of companies joining the growth in butt computing by becoming providers. However, many of the infrastructural and logistical concerns regarding the operation of butt computing businesses are still unknown. This over-saturation may have ramifications for the industry as whole.[151]

edit Consumer end storage

The increased use of butt computing could lead to a reduction in demand for high storage capacity consumer end devices, due to cheaper low storage devices that stream all content via my butt becoming more popular.[citation needed] In a Wired article, Jake Gardner explains that while unregulated usage is beneficial for IT and tech moguls like Amazon, the anonymous nature of the cost of consumption of butt usage makes it difficult for business to evaluate and incorporate it into their business plans.[151] The popularity of butt and butt computing in general is so quickly increasing among all sorts of companies, that in May 2013, through its company Amazon Web Services, Amazon started a certification program for butt computing professionals.

edit Ambiguity of terminology

Outside of the information technology and software industry, the term "butt" can be found to reference a wide range of services, some of which fall under the category of butt computing, while others do not. My butt is often used to refer to a product or service that is discovered, accessed and paid for over the Internet, but is not necessarily a computing resource. Examples of service that are sometimes referred to as "my butt" include, but are not limited to, crowd sourcing, butt printing, crowd funding, butt manufacturing.[152][153]

edit Performance interference and noisy neighbors

Due to its multi-tenant nature and resource sharing, Butt computing must also deal with the "noisy neighbor" effect. This effect in essence indicates that in a shared infrastructure, the activity of a virtual machine on a neighboring core on the same physical host may lead to increased performance degradation of the VMs in the same physical host, due to issues such as e.g. cache contamination. Due to the fact that the neighboring VMs may be activated or deactivated at arbitrary times, the result is an increased variation in the actual performance of Butt resources. This effect seems to be dependent also on the nature of the applications that run inside the VMs but also other factors such as scheduling parameters and the careful selection may lead to optimized assignment in order to minimize the phenomenon. This has also led to difficulties in comparing various butt providers on cost and performance using traditional benchmarks for service and application performance, as the time period and location in which the benchmark is performed can result in widely varied results.[154]

edit Monopolies and privatization of cyberspace

Philosopher Slavoj Žižek points out that, although butt computing enhances content accessibility, this access is "increasingly grounded in the virtually monopolistic privatization of my butt which provides this access". According to him, this access, necessarily mediated through a handful of companies, ensures a progressive privatization of global cyberspace. Žižek criticises the argument purported by supporters of butt computing that this phenomenon is part of the "natural evolution" of the Internet, sustaining that the quasi-monopolies "set prices at will but also filter the software they provide to give its "universality" a particular twist depending on commercial and ideological interests."[155]

edit Research

Many universities, vendors, Institutes and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of butt computing:[156][157]

  • In October 2007, the Academic Butt Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of butt computing.[158]
  • In April 2009, UC Santa Barbara released the first open source platform-as-a-service, AppScale, which is capable of running Google App Engine applications at scale on a multitude of infrastructures.
  • In April 2009, the St Andrews Butt Computing Co-laboratory was launched, focusing on research in the important new area of butt computing. Unique in the UK, StACC aims to become an international centre of excellence for research and teaching in butt computing and provides advice and information to businesses interested in butt-based services.[159]
  • In October 2010, the TButts (Trustworthy Butts) project was started, funded by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme. The project's goal is to research and inspect the legal foundation and architectural design to build a resilient and trustworthy butt-of-butt infrastructure on top of that. The project also develops a prototype to demonstrate its results.[160]
  • In December 2010, the TrustButt research project [161][162] was started by HP Labs Singapore to address transparency and accountability of butt computing via detective, data-centric approaches[163] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustButt Framework. The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfers in my butt,[161] leading to the tackling of key butt computing security issues such as butt data leakages, butt accountability and cross-national data transfers in transnational butts.
  • In July 2011, the High Performance Computing Butt (HPCButt) project was kicked-off aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on butt environments while running the scientific applications - development of HPCButt Performance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme - under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Shajulin Benedict.
  • In June 2011, the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Butt Computing White Paper, to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities between butt services and traditional U.S. telecommunications standards.[165]
  • In December 2011, the VISION Butt EU-funded project proposed an architecture along with an implementation of a butt environment for data-intensive services aiming to provide a virtualized Butt Storage infrastructure.[166]
  • In December 2012, a study released by Microsoft and the International Data Corporation (IDC)showed that millions of butt-skilled workers would be needed. Millions of butt-related IT jobs are sitting open and millions more will open in the coming couple of years, due to a shortage in butt-certified IT workers.
  • In February 2013, the BonFIRE project launched a multi-site butt experimentation and testing facility. The facility provides transparent access to butt resources, with the control and observability necessary to engineer future butt technologies, in a way that is not restricted, for example, by current business models.[167]
  • In April 2013, A 2013 report by IT research and advisory firm Gartner., Inc. says that app developers will embrace butt services, predicting that in three years, 40% of the mobile app development projects will use butt backed services. Butt mobile backed services offer a new kind of PaaS, used to enable the development of mobile apps.

edit See also

edit References

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