Absolutely brilliant. I love the first quote. I like how the scientists end up mental. Like how scientists and politicians use it. Can't fault the humour only to say there could be more of it but that is more to do with content.
Quality and not quantity. It is fine as a short article but I think now that the reader is engaged he needs more. I read it loving every bit of it but when it ran out I was a bit disappointed there wasn't more. Good use of facts though and touches on a lot of different areas like the Russian revolution.
Prose and formatting:
I can only give this a 7 as when I read it I notice a slight unencyclopedicnes about it. This really comes to light in the section "Treatments" which is unnecesary and sort of makes the article worse. It sounds very unencyclopedic there I'm afraid but it picks itself back up later. Include the treatments bit in the intro as you seem to be telling the story. If you wanted to make it clear what the treatments are for probability theory then use the scientists as an example and expand on it. Also there are quite a few grammar errors, especially in the last paragraph which you need to fix (I know you are a native speaker but unfortunately the reader won't). I'll help you fix them if you want.
The russian roulette picture was great and so was the dice one although the dice one could have been slightly funny if it had a point to it. You just showed every side with sixes and then gave prob. 16.7% but you didn't put the joke in context. For example: Every scientist knows that on this dice there is a probability of 16.7% for rolling a six. Then you are making fun of the scientists, which adds to the humour.
Amazing article for your first article. Good quality. Now try to get a bit more quantity and expand the paragraphs you have as I personally think that it is too short to look encyclopedic and also disappointing to finish reading so soon.