Nobel Prize

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The '''Nobel Prize''' or, as the French would say, '''L'Nobel Prize''' is the world's most ironic award for peace, started by the inventor of BFG, Mr Nobel. An important requirement for any decent Nobel Prize winner is to have a huge-ass moustache, grey beard and a pot belly.
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{{pp-protected|expiry=2013-07-12T01:20:54Z|small=yes}}{{For|a comprehensive list of Nobel Prize recipients sorted by year|List of Nobel laureates}}
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''For more information on the distinct origin of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, see'' [[Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences]]
   
In addition to the peace prize, a Nobel prize is awarded for many different scientific disciplines, which are enumerated and explained in greater detail below. In order to win one of these, you either have to discover something really awesome like how to make a [[cat]] speak [[English]] using mind-control electrodes or walk around saying stuff about the universe that a character in a movie who is supposed to be smart might say. Nobel recipient [[Albert Einstein]] provided us with an ideal example of this type of jargon when he remarked, "The epsilon tau of a fourth order quadrant with a p-risk rating of eight yields donut-shaped spacetime and hence conclusively proves Angelina Jolie didn't steal Brad away from Jen since it makes apparent that conditions otherwise would have violated the third law of thermonucleopolygrams."
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{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2012}}
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{{Infobox award
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|name= The Nobel Prize
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|image= Nobel Prize.png
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|alt= A golden medallion with an embossed image of Alfred Nobel facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MDCCCXXXIII" above, followed by (smaller) "OB•" then "MDCCCXCVI" below.
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|description= Outstanding contributions in [[Nobel Prize in Physics|Physics]], [[Nobel Prize in Chemistry|Chemistry]], [[Nobel Prize in Literature|Literature]], [[Nobel Peace Prize|Peace]], [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]], and [[Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences|Economic Sciences]]
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|presenter= [[Swedish Academy]]<br />Nobel committee of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences <br />Nobel committee of Karolinska Institutet <br />Norwegian Nobel Committee
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|country= [[Sweden]]<br />[[Norway]] (Peace Prize only)
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|year= 1901
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|website= [http://nobelprize.org nobelprize.org]
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}}
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The '''Nobel Prize''' ({{IPA-sv|noˈbɛl}}, [[Swedish language|Swedish]] definite form, singular: ''Nobelpriset''; [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]]: ''Nobelprisen'') is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by [[Scandinavia]]n committees in recognition of cultural and/or scientific advances. The will of the [[Swedes|Swedish]] philanthropist inventor [[Alfred Nobel]] established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in [[Nobel Prize in Physics|Physics]], [[Nobel Prize in Chemistry|Chemistry]], [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]], [[Nobel Prize in Literature|Literature]], and [[Nobel Peace Prize|Peace]] were first awarded in 1901.<ref>{{cite news|title=Which country has the best brains? |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-11500373 |accessdate=6 December 2011|publisher=[[BBC News]]|date=8 October 2010}}</ref> The related [[Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences]] was created in 1968.
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The Peace Prize is awarded in [[Oslo]], Norway, while the other prizes are awarded in [[Stockholm]], Sweden. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics.<ref name="Shalev8">{{cite book|author=Shalev, Baruch Aba|year=2005|page=8|authorlink=#Shalev69}}</ref>
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The [[Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences]] awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences; the [[Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet|Nobel Assembly]] at [[Karolinska Institutet]] awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the [[Swedish Academy]] grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is not awarded by a Swedish organisation but by the [[Norwegian Nobel Committee]].
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The various prizes are awarded yearly. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a [[diploma]] and a sum of money, which is decided by the [[Nobel Foundation]]. {{as of|2012}}, each prize was worth 8 million SEK (c. {{USD|1.2 million}}, €0.93 million). The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.<ref name="cbc1003">{{cite news|title=Montreal-born scientist dies before Nobel honour |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/2011/10/03/nobel-prize-medicine.html |accessdate=3 October 2011|publisher=[[CBC News]]|date=3 October 2011}}</ref> Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/nobelshare.html|title=Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th century|last=Schmidhuber|first=Jürgen}}</ref>
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
One day, [[Alfred Nobel]], the famous [[Swedish]] game show host realised that one day he would be [[dead]] and, therefore, no longer able to give out fabulous prizes. Unable to cope with such a prospect, Nobel gave a large sum of [[money]] to the King of [[Sweden]], who spent it on things that he was a needin', such as a house built of gold and steel and a diamond car with platinum wheels.<br><br> Realising what a silly thing he'd done, Nobel gave another fortune to the King of [[Norway]], who was far less sensible, and who instituted the annual issue of Nobel Prizes. The Nobel Prize should not be confused with the [[Nobel Price]] under penalty of law.
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[[File:AlfredNobel adjusted.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair. | Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, titled ''The merchant of death is dead'', in a French newspaper.]]
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[[Alfred Nobel]] ({{Audio|Sv-Alfred Nobel.ogg|listen}}) was born on 21 October 1833 in [[Stockholm]], Sweden, into a family of engineers.<ref name="Levinovitz5">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=5|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the [[Bofors]] iron and steel mill, which he made into a major [[Weapon|armaments]] [[manufacturing|manufacturer]]. Nobel also invented [[ballistite]], a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder [[cordite]]. Nobel was even involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355&nbsp;inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.<ref name="Levinovitz11">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=11|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref>
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In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled ''The merchant of death is dead'', in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother [[Ludvig Nobel|Ludvig]] who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.<ref name="Time">{{cite news |first= Frederic |last= Golden |title= The Worst And The Brightest |date= 16 October 2000 |publisher= Time Warner |url= http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,998209,00.html |work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |accessdate=9 April 2010}}</ref> On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in [[Sanremo|San Remo, Italy]], from a [[cerebral hemorrhage|cerebral haemorrhage]]. He was 63 years old.<ref name="Sohlman13">{{cite book|author=Sohlman, Ragnar|year=1983|page=13|authorlink=#Sohlman69}}</ref>
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Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. The last was written over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.<ref name="Sohlman7">{{cite book|author=Sohlman, Ragnar|year=1983|page=7|authorlink=#Sohlman69}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last= von Euler|first= U. S.|title= The Nobel Foundation and its Role for Modern Day Science|url= http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=xu7j67w616m06488&size=largest|format= PDF|publisher= [[Springer Science+Business Media|Springer-Verlag]]|work= Die Naturwissenschaften|date= 6 June 1981|accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref> To widespread astonishment, Nobel's [[will (law)|last will]] specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in [[physics]], [[chemistry]], [[peace]], [[physiology]] or [[medicine]], and [[literature]].<ref name="thelocal1">{{cite web |url= http://www.thelocal.se/14776/20091005/ |title= Alfred Nobel's last will and testament |accessdate=11 June 2010 |last= [[Agence France-Presse|AFP]] |date= 5 October 2009 |work= [[The Local]]}}</ref> Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31&nbsp;million SEK (c. US$186 million, €150 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes.<ref name="Abrams7">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=7|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref>
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Because of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the [[Parliament of Norway|Storting]] in Norway.<ref name="Levinovitz13-25">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=13–25|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> The executors of Nobel's will, [[Ragnar Sohlman]] and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the award of prizes.<ref name="Abrams7-8">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=7–8|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref>
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Nobel's instructions named a [[Norwegian Nobel Committee]] to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were designated or established.<!--wouldn't a better word be "designated"? they already existed, did they not?--> These were the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.<ref name="Crawford1">{{cite book|author=Crawford, Elizabeth T.|year=1984|page=1|authorlink=#Crawford69}}</ref> The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded; and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created [[statute]]s were promulgated by [[Oscar II of Sweden|King Oscar II]].<ref name="thelocal1"/> In 1905, the [[Union between Sweden and Norway|personal union between Sweden and Norway]] was dissolved. Thereafter, Norway's Nobel Committee was responsible for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize and the Swedish institutions retained responsibility for the other prizes.<ref name="Levinovitz13-25"/>
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===Nobel Foundation===
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{{Main|Nobel Foundation}}
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[[File:Alfred Nobels will-November 25th, 1895.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A paper with stylish handwriting on it with the title "Testament"|Alfred Nobel's will stated that 94% of his total assets should be used to establish the Nobel Prizes.]]
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The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organisation on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.<ref name="Levinovitz14">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=14|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. [[Robert Nobel|Robert]] and [[Ludwig Nobel]] were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan and, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from [[Baku]] that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/42_folder/42_articles/42_readersforum.html|title=Nobel Prize Funded from Baku|publisher=''[[Azerbaijan International]]''|accessdate=25 December 2010}}</ref> Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates.<ref name="Levinovitz15">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=15|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref><ref name="Feldman16">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=16|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> In many ways, the Nobel Foundation is similar to an [[investment company]], in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).<ref name="Levinovitz17-18">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=17–18|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish ''kronor'' (c. US$560 million).<ref name="Levinovitz15-17">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=15–17|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref>
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According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The [[Chairman|Chairman of the Board]] is appointed by the Swedish [[Privy Council of Sweden|King in Council]], with the other four members appointed by the [[trustee]]s of the prize-awarding institutions. An [[Executive director|Executive Director]] is chosen from among the [[board of directors|board members]], a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and [[audit]]ors.<ref name="Levinovitz15-17"/>
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===First prizes===
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[[File:Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad (1845-1923).jpg|thumb|upright|right|alt=A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair. |[[Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen]] received the first Physics Prize for his discovery of X-rays.]]
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Once the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the [[Nobel Committee]]s began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions. Originally, the Norwegian Nobel Committee appointed prominent figures including [[Jørgen Løvland]], [[Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson]] and [[Johannes Steen]] to give the Nobel Peace Prize credibility.<ref name="Abrams39-41">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=39–41|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> The committee awarded the Peace Prize to two prominent figures in the growing peace movement around the end of the 19th century. These were [[Frédéric Passy]], co-founder of the [[Inter-Parliamentary Union]], and [[Henry Dunant]] the founder of the [[International Committee of the Red Cross]].<ref name="Levinovitz166-168">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=166–168|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref><ref name="Crawford266">{{cite book|author=Crawford, Elizabeth T.|year=1984|page=266|authorlink=#Crawford69}}</ref><ref name="Feldman297">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=297|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
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The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited [[Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen]]'s discovery of [[X-ray]]s and [[Philipp Lenard]]'s work on [[cathode rays]]. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize.<ref name="Feldman134">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=134|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref name="Leroy117-118">{{cite book|author=Leroy, Francis|year=2003|pages=117–118|authorlink=#Leroy}}</ref> In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize."<ref name="Levinovitz77">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=77|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for [[Jacobus H. van 't Hoff|Jacobus van't Hoff]].<ref name="Crawford118">{{cite book|author=Crawford, Elizabeth T.|year=1984|page=118|authorlink=#Crawford69}}</ref> Van't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in [[chemical thermodynamics]].<ref name="Levinovitz81">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=81|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref><ref name="Feldman205">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=205|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
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The Swedish Academy chose the poet [[Sully Prudhomme]] for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected [[Leo Tolstoy]] to win.<ref name="Levinovitz144">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=144|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferred [[Victorian literature]] and thus selected a Victorian poet.<ref name="Feldman69">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=69|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist [[Emil von Behring]]. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an [[antitoxin]] to treat [[diphtheria]], which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.<ref name="Feldman242-244">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|pages=242–244|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref name="Leroy233">{{cite book|author=Leroy, Francis|year=2003|page=233|authorlink=#Leroy}}</ref>
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===World War II===
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In 1938 and 1939, [[Adolf Hitler]]'s [[Nazi Germany|Third Reich]] forbade three laureates from Germany ([[Richard Kuhn]], [[Adolf Butenandt|Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt]], and [[Gerhard Domagk]]) from accepting their prizes.<ref name="Levinovitz23">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=23|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> Each man was later able to receive the diploma and medal.<ref name="Wilhelm85">{{cite book|author=Wilhelm, Peter|year=1983|page=85|authorlink=#Wilhelm69}}</ref> Even though Sweden was officially neutral during World War II, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940–42, due to the [[Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany|occupation of Norway by Germany]]. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/all/ |title=All Nobel Laureates |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref>
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During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile. The remaining members escaped persecution from the [[Nazism|Nazis]] when the Nobel Foundation stated that the Committee building in [[Oslo]] was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden.<ref name="Abrams23">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=23|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> These members kept the work of the Committee going but did not award any prizes. In 1944 the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again.<ref name="Levinovitz23"/>
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[[File:Worldmapnobellaureatesbycountry2.PNG|thumb|260px|Map of Nobel laureates by country.]]
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===Prize in Economic Sciences===
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{{Main|Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences}}
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In 1968, [[Sveriges Riksbank]] celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honor of Nobel. The following year, the [[Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences]] was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were [[Jan Tinbergen]] and [[Ragnar Frisch]] "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes."<ref name="Feldman343">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=343|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref name="Levinovitz207">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=207|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> Although not a Nobel Prize, it is intimately identified with the other awards; the laureates are announced with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the Prize in Economic Sciences is presented at the Swedish Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cmu.edu/news/archive/2009/October/oct12nobelprizeeconomics.shtml |title=Nobel Prize in Economic Science Awarded to Oliver E. Williamson |publisher=[[Carnegie Mellon University]] |date=12 October 2009 |accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref> The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes.<ref name="Levinovitz20">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=20|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref>
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==Award process==
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The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes; the main difference is in who can make nominations for each of them.<ref name="Feldman16-17">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|pages=16–17|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
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|image1= Announcement Nobelprize Chemistry 2009-3.ogv
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|caption1= The announcement of the laureates in Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 by [[Gunnar Öquist]], permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
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|image2= Announcement Nobelprize Literature 2009-1.ogv
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|caption2= 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature announcement by [[Peter Englund]] in Swedish, English and German
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===Nominations===
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Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are often academics working in a relevant area. For the Peace Prize, inquiries are sent to governments, members of [[international court]]s, professors and rectors, former Peace Prize laureates and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award.<ref name="Feldman16-17"/><ref name="Levinovitz26">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=26|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names.<ref name="Abrams15">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=15|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.<ref name="Feldman315"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nomination/nomination_facts.html |title=Nomination Facts |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]] |accessdate=3 March 2010 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20100109142845/http://nobelprize.org/nomination/nomination_facts.html <!--Added by H3llBot--> |archivedate=9 January 2010}}</ref>
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===Selection===
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The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions.<ref name="Feldman52">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=52|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote.<ref name="Levinovitz25-28">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=25–28|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals.<ref name="Abrams8">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=8|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> If the Peace Prize is not awarded, the money is split among the scientific prizes. This has happened 19 times so far.<ref name=philp>{{cite news|last=Philp|first=Catherine |title=How the Nobel Peace Prize winner is decided|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6868833.ece|accessdate=25 May 2010|work=The Times|publisher=Times Newspapers Limited|date=10 October 2009 |location=London}}</ref>
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===Posthumous nominations===
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Although posthumous nominations are not permitted, individuals who die in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to [[Erik Axel Karlfeldt]], and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to [[Secretary-General of the United Nations|UN Secretary General]] [[Dag Hammarskjöld]]. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, [[William Vickrey]], who in 1996 died after the prize (in [[Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences|Economics]]) was announced but before it could be presented.<ref name="Abrams9">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=9|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] were announced; however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, [[Ralph M. Steinman]], had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously.<ref name="cbc1003"/> The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged.<ref>{{cite web|title=Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_organizations/nobelfoundation/press_releases_archive/2011/steinman.html|accessdate=8 October 2012|publisher=[[The Nobel Foundation]]|date=3 October 2011}}</ref>
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===Recognition time lag===
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Nobel's will provides for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year". Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/articles/espmark/index.html |title=The Nobel Prize in Literature |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]] |date=3 December 1999|accessdate=10 February 2010}}</ref> However, some of these early discoveries were later discredited. For example, [[Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger|Johannes Fibiger]] was awarded the 1926 Prize for [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Physiology or Medicine]] for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer.<ref name="Levinovitz125">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=125|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> To avoid this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time.<ref name="Abrams25">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=25|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref name="embo">{{cite journal|doi=10.1093/embo-reports/kve034|last=Breithaupt|pmc=1083830|first=Holger|pmid=11258715 |title=The Nobel Prizes in the new century: An interview with Ralf Pettersson, Director of the Stockholm Branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, the Karolinska Institute, and former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology/Medicine |year=2001 |volume=2|issue=2|journal=EMBO Reports|publisher=Nature Publishing Group|pages=83–5}}</ref><ref name="scienceline1">{{cite web|url=http://www.scienceline.org/2009/10/06/blog-liu-nobel_physics-200/ |title=Nobel Prize in Physics Honors "Masters of Light" |work=Scienceline |date=7 October 2009|accessdate=19 February 2010}}</ref> According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, "the criterion ‘the previous year’ is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident."<ref name=embo/>
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[[File:Nobelinstituttet 20080913-01.jpg|thumb|alt=A room with pictures on the walls. In the middle of the room there is a wooden table with chairs around it.|The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel Committee]]
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The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/ |title=All Nobel Laureates in Literature |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]] |accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/ |title=The Nobel Prize in Literature |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref> The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2008/index.html |title=Peace 2008 |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]] |accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|first=Lisa|last=Bryant|authorlink=|title=Former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari Wins Nobel Peace Prize|date=10 October 2008|work=[[Voice of America]]|publisher=International Broadcasting Bureau|url=http://voanews.com/english/archive/2008-10/2008-10-10-voa8.cfm|accessdate=27 December 2008}}</ref> However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/ |title=All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref> For instance, [[Kofi Annan]] was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations.<ref name="Abrams330">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=330|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> Similarly [[Yasser Arafat]], [[Yitzhak Rabin]], and [[Shimon Peres]] received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the [[Oslo Accords]].<ref name="Abrams27">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=27|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref>
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Although Nobel's will stated that prizes should be awarded for contributions made "during the preceding year", awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, [[Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar]] shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution.<ref name=currentscience>{{cite journal|last=Vishveshwara|first=S.|coauthors=|title=Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections|journal=Current Science|volume=78 |issue=8|pages=1025–1033|format=PDF|month=25 April|year=2000 |url=http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/apr252000/generalia.pdf|accessdate=27 February 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url= http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1983/chandrasekhar-autobio.html |title= Subramanyan Chandrasekhar – Autobiography |accessdate=11 June 2010 |year= 1983 |publisher= [[The Nobel Foundation]]}}</ref> Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2004/ecoadv.pdf|date=11 October 2004 |title=Finn Kydland and Edward Prescott's Contribution to Dynamic Macroeconomics|format=PDF|publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/0352751044g0746k/ |title=Why it has become more difficult to predict Nobel Prize winners: a bibliometric analysis of nominees and winners of the chemistry and physics prizes (1901–2007)|journal=Scientometrics|doi=10.1007/s11192-009-0035-9 |year=2010|page=401|volume=82|last1=Gingras |first1=Yves|first2=Matthew L. |last2=Wallace|issue=2}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Editorial|url=http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/v1/n7/full/nchem.372.html |title=Access : A nobel prize : Nature Chemistry |year=2009|doi=10.1038/nchem.372|journal=Nature Chemistry|volume=1|page=509|issue=7}}</ref>
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==Award ceremonies==
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Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony. The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events.<ref name="autogenerated5">{{cite web|url=http://news.icm.ac.uk/technology/2009-nobel-prize-award-ceremony-live-online/4893/ |title=2009 Nobel Prize award ceremony live online &#124; IT &#124; ICM Commercial & Business News |publisher=[[Institute of Commercial Management]] |date=10 December 2009|accessdate=16 January 2010}}</ref><ref name="thelocal2">{{cite web|url=http://www.thelocal.se/23784/20091210/ |title=Pomp aplenty as winners gather for Nobel gala|work=[[The Local]] |date=10 December 2009 |accessdate=16 January 2010}}</ref> The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies' are held at the [[Stockholm Concert Hall]], with the Nobel banquet following immediately at [[Stockholm City Hall]]. The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the [[Norwegian Nobel Institute]] (1905–1946), at the [[auditorium]] of the [[University of Oslo]] (1947–1989) and at [[Oslo City Hall]] (1990–present).<ref name="Levinovitz21-23">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=21–23|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref>
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The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway.<ref name="thelocal2"/><ref name="sweden2">{{cite web|last=Froman |first=Ingmarie |url=http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Education/Research/Reading/The-Nobel-Week--a-celebration-of-science/ |title=The Nobel Week — a celebration of science |publisher=[[Swedish Institute]] |date=4 December 2007|accessdate=16 January 2010}}</ref> At first King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. It is said that his mind changed once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thelocal.se/14776/20091005/ |title=Alfred Nobel's last will and testament |work=[[The Local]] |date=5 December 2009 |accessdate=16 January 2010}}</ref>
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===Nobel banquet===
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[[File:Nobel-banquet-table.jpg|thumb|alt=A set table with a white table cloth. There are many plates and glasses plus a menu visible on the table.|Table at the 2005 Nobel Banquet in Stockholm]]
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After the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests. The banquet features a three-course dinner, entertainment, and dancing, and is covered extensively by Swedish media. The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Oslo at the Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the President of the Storting, the Prime Minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend for a five-course meal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thelocal.se/9358/20071210/ |title=Nobel Banquet: the feast of feasts|work=[[The Local]] |date=10 December 2007 |accessdate=16 January 2010}}</ref> All aspects of the Nobel Banquet are carefully thought through including the experience from and round the meal. The colour and lighting of the banquet venue and the ambience it creates, the music being played, the acoustic of the venue, the design of the cutlery, furniture and glass are all taken into serious consideration.<ref name="The Nobel Banquet">{{cite book|author=Söderlind, Ulrica|year=2011|pages=25–30}}</ref>
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For the first time in its history, the banquet was cancelled in Oslo in 1979 because the laureate, [[Mother Teresa]], refused to attend, saying the money would be better spent on the poor. Mother Teresa used the US$7,000 that was to be spent on the banquet to hold a dinner for 2,000 homeless people on Christmas Day.<ref name="Abrams17-18">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=17–18|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref name="Jones27">{{cite book|author=Jones, Brenn|year=2003|page=27|authorlink=#Jones}}</ref>
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===Nobel lecture===
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According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize.<ref name="Feldman240">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=240|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref name="Levinovitz127">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=127|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format.<ref>[[Philippe-Joseph Salazar]],“Nobel Rhetoric, Or Petrarch’s Pendulum”, in the journal Rhetoric and Philosophy 42(4), 373–400, 2009 ISSN 0031-8213</ref> These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize. Some have happened even later. For example, US president [[Theodore Roosevelt]] won the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office.<ref name="Abrams18-19">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=18–19|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/dec/08/jmg-clezio-nobel-lecture |title=Le Clézio uses Nobel lecture to attack information poverty|work=The Guardian|publisher=Guardian Media Company |date=8 December 2008 |accessdate=20 January 2010|first=Richard|last=Lea |location=London}}</ref>
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==Prizes==
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===Medals===
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It was announced on 30 May 2012 that the Nobel Foundation had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Formerly, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by [[Myntverket]] (the Swedish Mint) in between 1902–2010. Myntverket, Sweden's oldest company, ceased operations in 2011 after 1,017 years. In 2011 the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation.<ref>{{cite web|title= Medalj – ett traditionellt hantverk|publisher= [[Myntverket]]|url= http://www.myntverket.se/products.asp?lang=sv&page=3 |language= Swedish|accessdate=15 December 2007|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20071218102934/http://www.myntverket.se/products.asp?lang=sv&amp;page=3 <!--Added by H3llBot-->|archivedate= 18 December 2007}}</ref> Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the [[obverse and reverse|obverse]]. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design. For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal.<ref name="Feldman2">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=2|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design.<ref name=Paulingmedal>[http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/bond/pictures/nobel-chemistry-medal.html "Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Front and back images of the medal. 1954"], "Source: Photo by Eric Arnold. Ava Helen and [[Linus Pauling]] Papers. Honors and Awards, 1954h2.1", "All Documents and Media: Pictures and Illustrations", ''Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History'', the [[The Valley Library|Valley Library]], [[Oregon State University]]. Retrieved 7 December 2007.</ref>
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[[File:Nobel Prize Diploma Fritz Haber 1918.JPG|thumb|alt=A heavily decorated paper with the name "Fritz Haber" on it.|Laureates receive a heavily decorated diploma together with a gold medal and the prize money. Here [[Fritz Haber]]'s diploma is shown, which he received for the development of a method to synthesise ammonia.]]
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All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 [[carat (purity)|carat]] gold. Since then they have been struck in 18 carat [[coloured gold#Green gold|green gold]] plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about {{convert|175|g|lb}} for each medal. The diameter is {{convert|66|mm|in}} and the thickness varies between {{convert|5.2|mm|in}} and {{convert|2.4|mm|in}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/about/medals/ |title=The Nobel Prize Medals and the Medal for the Prize in Economics |accessdate=2 April 2010 |last=Lemmel |first=Birgitta |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]}}</ref> Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft.<ref name="UniversityofCalifornia">{{cite news |url=http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/8975 |title=University of California – UC Newsroom – Nobel Prize medal stolen from Lawrence Hall of Science is found, student arrested |publisher=[[University of California]] |accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref><ref name="NYTimes">{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/26/world/world-briefing-asia-india-poet-s-nobel-medal-stolen.html?fta=y |title=Poet's Nobel Medal Stolen |work=The New York Times|publisher=Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.|accessdate=21 January 2010|first=Hari|last=Kumar|date=26 March 2004}}</ref><ref name="Reuters">{{cite news |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL1646982020070616 |title=Police hand back Tutu's stolen Nobel medal|work=Reuters |publisher=Reuters |accessdate=21 January 2010 |date=16 June 2007}}</ref> During World War II, the medals of German scientists [[Max von Laue]] and [[James Franck]] were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, chemist [[George de Hevesy]] dissolved them in [[aqua regia]], to prevent confiscation by [[Nazi Germany]] and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.<ref name="Feldman397">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=397|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
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===Diplomas===
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Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden or the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them.<ref name=autogenerated1>Burton Feldman, "The Nobel prize: a history of genius, controversy, and prestige", ''Arcade Publishing'' (2001): 2.</ref> The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas.<ref name="Abrams18">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=18|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/about/diplomas/index.html |title=The Nobel Prize Diplomas |accessdate=12 March 2010 |last=Lemmel |first=Birgitta |year=2009 |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]}}</ref>
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===Award money===
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The laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded.<ref name=Feldman2/> The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The purse has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was 880 000 SEK (c. 2.6 million SEK, US$350&nbsp;000 or €295,000 today) per prize. In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million, €950,000).<ref name="Nobel Prize Amounts">{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/about/amounts.html |title=The Nobel Prize Amounts |publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]|year=2009 |accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref><ref name="CNN">{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/video/#/video/us/2009/10/11/foreman.how.nobel.awarded.cnn?iref=videosearch |title=Video – Breaking News Videos from CNN.com |publisher=CNN |date=11 October 2009 |accessdate=15 January 2010}}</ref> In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK.<ref>{{cite web|title=Committee lowers Nobel Prize by 2 million kronor|url=http://www.thelocal.se/41378/20120611/|publisher=The Local|accessdate=12 June 2012}}</ref> If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.<ref name="Abrams8-10">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=8–10|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/oct/05/nobel-prize-medicine-2009-award|title=Nobel prize for medicine shared by scientists for work on ageing and cancer|work=The Guardian|publisher=Guardian Media Group |date=5 October 2009 |accessdate=15 January 2010|first=Ian|last=Sample |location=London}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author=Sample, Ian|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/oct/07/physics.nobel |title=Three share Nobel prize for physics |work=The Guardian |publisher=Guardian Media Group|date=7 October 2008 |accessdate=10 February 2010 |location=London}}</ref> It is not uncommon for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes.<ref>{{cite web|last=Locke|first=Michelle|title= Berkeley Nobel laureates donate prize money to charity|url=http://www.ebcf.org/press/07/Smoot_AP_3-07.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=10 February 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/20/13/2186 |title=Reflections on the prize of prizes: Alfred Nobel|doi=10.1096/fj.06-1102ufm |publisher=[[The FASEB Journal]]|pmid=17077294|year=2006|last1=Pederson|first1=T.|journal=The FASEB Journal|volume=20|issue=13|pages=2186–9}}</ref>
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==Controversies and criticisms==
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{{Main|Nobel Prize controversies}}
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==Categories==
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===Controversial recipients===
===[[Nobel Peace Prize|Peace]]===
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Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of [[Eurocentrism]], especially for the Literature Prize.<ref name="Abramsxiv">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=xiv|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref name="Feldman65">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=65|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref name='Sarasota Herald-Tribune - 20 Sep 1981'>{{cite news|first=William|last=Tuohy|title=Literature Award Hardest for Nobel Prize Panel|date=20 September 1981|publisher=Sarasota Herald Tribune|url=http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1755&dat=19810920&id=FZ0cAAAAIBAJ&sjid=DGgEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6245,2424225|page=58|accessdate=9 March 2010|language=}}</ref>
Nobel viewed the people of Sweden as idiots who would only give the peace prize to their own mooses, and therefore gave the pacifist Norway the honor of giving out this award. The Norwegians, who dress up like [[Santa]] when they go to war, rarely harm anyone and needed something to do.
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[[File:Henry Kissinger.jpg|thumb|upright|left|When it was announced that [[Henry Kissinger]] was to be awarded the Peace Prize two of the Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigned in protest.]]
This Prize goes to the person who can stop the most wars in a 365 day period. Michael Ellman has won this prize roughly 12,943 times. What a great man!
 
Remember though that the Nobel Peace Prize doesn't actually do shit to help support peace...
 
   
[[Al Gore]] won the prize for a power point-presentation in [[2007]] and Barack Obama won it in 2009 for doing absolutely nothing.
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;Peace Prize
   
===[[Nobel War Prize|War]]===
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Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to [[Henry Kissinger]] and [[Lê Ðức Thọ]]. Lê Ðức Thọ later declined the prize.<ref name="topten">{{cite news|last=de Sousa |first=Ana Naomi |title=Top ten Nobel Prize rows|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article6868007.ece|accessdate=25 May 2010|publisher=Times Newspapers Limited|work=The Times|date=9 October 2009 |location=London}}</ref> This led to two Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigning. Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between [[North Vietnam]] and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities.<ref name="Abrams219">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=219|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> Many critics were of the opinion that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite; responsible for widening the war.<ref name="Feldman315">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=315|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref name="Abrams315">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=315|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref>
Far more frequently seen, the Nobel War Prize recognises 'that warmonger, tyrant, ne'er do well or abject bastard who has done the most to ruin civilisation and bully and subjugate the peoples of the Earth within the last year'. In the event of a tie, the winner is chosen by an additional battle to the death.
 
   
===Facial Hair===
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[[Yasser Arafat]], [[Shimon Peres]], and [[Yitzhak Rabin]] received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine.<ref name="Feldman315"/><ref name="Levinovitz183">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=183|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> However, many issues, such as the plight of Palestinian refugees, had not been addressed on the negotiations,<ref>{{cite web|last=Frost|first=Caroline|title=Yasser Arafat:Profile|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/profile/yasser-arafat.shtml|publisher=BBC|accessdate=18 June 2010|date=5 July 2002}}</ref> and no final status agreement was reached.<ref>{{cite news|last=Miller|first=Judith|title=Yasir Arafat, Father and Leader of Palestinian Nationalism, Dies at 75|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/11/international/middleeast/arafatobit.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1|accessdate=18 June 2010|newspaper=The New York Times|date=11 November 2004|publisher=Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.}}</ref> Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned.<ref name="Feldman15-16">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|pages=15–16|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers.<ref name="Abrams302-306">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=302–306|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref>
Awarded to 21st President Chester A. Arthur for his work in this field. [[David Norris]], Ireland's leading [[James Joyce]]ologist, was awarded this in 2005.
 
   
===Medicine===
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Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to [[Barack Obama]] [[2009 Nobel Peace Prize|in 2009]].<ref>{{cite news|first1=Steven|last2=Stolberg|first2=Sheryl Gay|authorlink=|title=Surprise Nobel for Obama Stirs Praise and Doubts|date=9 October 2009|work=The New York Times|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/10/world/10nobel.html?_r=1|publisher=Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.|pages=|accessdate=1 April 2010}}</ref> Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months.<ref name=philp/> Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award,<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D9B7MB401&show_article=1 |title=Obama says he'll accept Nobel as 'call to action' |accessdate=9 October 2009 |date=9 October 2009 |agency=Associated Press|work=Breitbart|first=Darlene |last=Superville}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSTRE5981JK20091009?sp=true|title=Obama is surprise winner of Nobel Peace Prize |accessdate=9 October 2009 |date=9 October 2009 |publisher=Reuters}}</ref> or worthy of the company it would place him in.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-on-Winning-the-Nobel-Peace-Prize/ |title=Remarks by the President on winning the Nobel Peace Prize |accessdate=1 April 2010 |date=9 October 2009 |publisher=[[The White House]]}}</ref> Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not yet earned it. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for [[Jimmy Carter]] and [[Al Gore]], also prompted accusations of a [[Left-wing politics|left-wing]] bias.<ref>{{cite news|last= Naughton|first= Philippe|title= President Obama humbled: I do not deserve the Nobel Peace Prize|date= 9 October 2009|publisher=Times Newspapers Limited|work= The Times|url= http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6868457.ece|accessdate=8 June 2010 |location=London}}</ref>
This prize is awarded to all those guys that makes the TV-show [[Scrubs]]. Other winners include [[Lil Jon]] "For his hard work of bringing modern drugs into the clubs." [[Emperor Norton|Norton Antivirus]] "For his incredible heroism when curing a computer from like 300 viruses in like 5 minutes like shit that was fast man." and [[Zombie Silvia Bernadotte]] of Sweden, "For her being able to be alive even if she's like dead! WTF!"
 
   
===Physics and Gastroenterology===
+
;Literature Prize
Often considered the toughest Nobel Prize to win, even though there are very few physicists. Awarded to the person who knows the most about asymptotic freedom, tunneling in superconductors, or other far-out things that actually have practical applications, i.e. in electronic devices. Following the tragic loss of numerous physicists to a sudden outbreak of gastric failure, the Swedes officially appended the prize to include honorable mentions for progress in Gastroenterology.
 
Some people place blame for this squarely on the Scandanavian diet, which of course is made up primarily of lutefisk and other such slimy concoctions that in all likelihood were originally created in pre-historic "fear factor"-like contests.
 
Hey, at least it's not proctology. Whoever invents the death ray will win the physics, peace, AND war prizes.
 
   
===Alpha Geek===
+
The award of the 2004 Literature Prize to [[Elfriede Jelinek]] drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, [[Knut Ahnlund]]. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art." He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure."<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9665122/ |title=Who deserves Nobel prize? Judges don’t agree |accessdate=1 April 2010 |date=11 October 2005 |agency=Associated Press}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4329962.stm |title=Nobel judge steps down in protest |accessdate=1 April 2010 |date=11 October 2005|publisher=BBC |work=BBC News}}</ref> The 2009 Literature Prize to [[Herta Müller]] also generated criticism. According to ''[[The Washington Post]]'' many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/10/08/AR2009100800965.html |title=Author's Nobel Stirs Shock-and-'Bah' |accessdate=1 April 2010 |last=Jordan |first=Mary |date=9 October 2009 |publisher=The Washington Post}}</ref> This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/08/nobel-prize-winner-herta_n_313577.html |title=NOBEL PRIZE WINNER: Herta Muller |publisher=The Huffington Post |date=8 October 2009 |accessdate=31 March 2010}}</ref>
In 2006 the Alpha Geek prize was added by the Nobel Foundation. The first winner of this award was Vanessa Herbold from Worcester, Massachusetts.
 
   
===Chemistry===
+
;Science prizes
Not including biochemistry; successful biochemists win [[Olympic Games|Olympic]] gold medals instead.
 
   
===Biology===
+
In 1949, the Portuguese neurologist [[António Egas Moniz]] received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the [[prefrontal leucotomy]]. The previous year [[Walter Freeman (surgeon)|Dr. Walter Freeman]] had developed a [[transorbital lobotomy|version of the procedure]] which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern [[medical ethics]]. Endorsed by such influential publications as ''[[The New England Journal of Medicine]]'', leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize.<ref name="Feldman286-289">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|pages=286–289|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Day|first=Elizabeth|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/jan/13/neuroscience.medicalscience |title=He was bad, so they put an ice pick in his brain... |work=The Guardian|publisher=Guardian Media Group |accessdate=31 March 2010|date=12 January 2008 |location=London}}</ref>
The Biology Prize was banned in 1923 under pressure from the [[Vatican]], who were concerned that biological research might lead to [[scientists]] discovering what people look like naked.
 
   
===Economics===
+
===Overlooked achievements===
Begun in [[1968]], the Nobel Prize in Economics is... *yawn*... is... zzzzzz.
+
[[File:MKGandhi.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Norwegian Nobel Committee declined to award a prize in 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate."]]
An annual award given to the [[University of Chicago]]. The holiday is consummated with yodeling at night.
+
[[File:Revolutionary Joyce Better Contrast.jpg|thumb|upright|right|James Joyce, one of the controversial omissions of the Literature Prize]]
  +
The Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that [[Mahatma Gandhi]] was nominated for the Peace Prize in 1937–39, 1947 and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948.<ref name="Levinovitz181-186">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|pages=181–186|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> Later members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee expressed regret that he was not given the prize.<ref name="ghandi"/> Geir Lundestad, Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee in 2006 said, "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question".<ref>[http://www.icrs.ugm.ac.id/wednesday-forum-schedule/111-relevance-of-gandhian-philosophy-in-the-21st-century] Relevance of Gandhian Philosophy in the 21st century</ref> In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year.<ref name="ghandi">{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/index.html |title=Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate |accessdate=17 October 2007 |last=Tønnesson |first=Øyvind |date=1 December 1999|publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]}}</ref><ref name="Abrams147-148">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=147–148|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> Later, when the [[14th Dalai Lama|Dalai Lama]] was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi."<ref>{{cite web |url= http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1989/presentation-speech.html |title= The Nobel Prize in Peace 1989 – Presentation Speech |accessdate=12 June 2010 |last= Aarvik |first= Egil |publisher= [[The Nobel Foundation]]}}</ref> Other high profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been missed out. ''[[Foreign Policy]]'' lists [[Eleanor Roosevelt]], [[Václav Havel]], [[Ken Saro-Wiwa]], [[Sari Nusseibeh]] and [[Corazon Aquino]] as people who "never won the prize, but should have."<ref>{{cite news |first= David |last= Kenner |title= Nobel Peace Prize Also-Rans |date= 7 October 2009 |publisher= The Washington Post Company |url= http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/10/07/nobel_peace_prize_also_rans |work= Foreign Policy |pages= 1–7 |accessdate=11 June 2010}}</ref>
   
===Australian===
+
The Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. [[Adam Kirsch]] has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism.<ref name="KirschNoClue">{{cite web|last=Kirsch |first=Adam |url=http://www.slate.com/id/2201447/ |title=The Nobel Committee has no clue about American literature. – By Adam Kirsch – Slate Magazine |publisher=[[Slate (magazine)|Slate]] |date=3 October 2008 |accessdate=31 March 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dn.se/dnbok/akademien-valjer-helst-en-europe-1.789000 |title=Akademien väljer helst en europé |accessdate=2 April 2010 |last=Fristorp |first=Mimmi |date=8 October 2008 |publisher=[[Dagens Nyheter]] |language=[[Swedish language|Swedish]]}}</ref> The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by [[Peter Englund]], the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/8742797 |title=Judge: Nobel literature prizes 'too Eurocentric' |work=The Guardian|publisher=Guardian Media Group |date=6 October 2009|accessdate=3 February 2010 |location=London}}</ref> Notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize include [[Leo Tolstoy]], [[Anton Chekhov]], [[Émile Zola]], [[Jorge Luis Borges]], [[Marcel Proust]], [[Vladimir Nabokov]], [[Ezra Pound]], [[James Joyce]], [[August Strindberg]], [[Simon Vestdijk]], [[John Updike]], [[Arthur Miller]], [[Chinua Achebe]] and [[Mark Twain]].<ref name="Feldman56-57">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|pages=56–57|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
The annual award for the most 'top bloke or good sort' in Australia. Most recently won by Vincent James McWillis of Kiama, [[New South Wales]], who has received the award five years running.
 
   
===Literature===
+
The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial.<ref name="Levinovitz61">{{cite book|author=Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin|year=2001|page=61|authorlink=#Levinovitz69}}</ref> When a prize is awarded to recognize an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to [[Koichi Tanaka]] and [[John Bennett Fenn|John Fenn]] for the development of [[mass spectrometry]] in [[protein|protein chemistry]], an award that did not recognize the achievements of [[Franz Hillenkamp]] and [[Michael Karas]] of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the [[Goethe University Frankfurt|University of Frankfurt]].<ref name="Spinney">{{cite web|author=Spinney, Laura|url=http://www.the-scientist.com/article/display/20931|title=News Analysis: Nobel Prize Controversy|work=[[The Scientist]]|year=2002|accessdate=28 October 2006.}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|first= Nicholas|last= Dawidoff|title= The Civil Heretic|date= 25 April 2009|url= http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/29/magazine/29Dyson-t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all/|work= The New York Times|publisher=Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.|accessdate=8 June 2010}}</ref> Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. In 1962, [[Francis Crick]], [[James D. Watson]], and [[Maurice Wilkins]] were awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize for discovering the structure of [[DNA]]. [[Rosalind Franklin]], a key contributor in that discovery, died of [[ovarian cancer]] four years earlier.<ref name="nobelprize3">{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.html|title=The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA – The Double Helix|last=Fredholm|first=Lotta|year=2003|publisher=[[The Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=27 February 2010}}</ref> [[Lise Meitner]], a physicist who co-discovered nuclear fission along with [[Otto Hahn]] and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, was also denied the award{{says who|date=April 2012}} due to having to flee Germany when the Nazis came to power. Her role in the research was not fully understood until years later, when the team was awarded the U.S.'s [[Enrico Fermi Award]].
The Nobel Prize in litterature shall according to the secret funding instructions every year be given to an unknown mediocre writer with great capacity to provoke good taste and foreign politicians, except the French. See [[Swedish Academy]]
 
   
===Rape And Pillage===
+
===Emphasis on discoveries over inventions===
Given to those individuals most fond and talented in the areas of burning, killing, maiming, and forcing people to do things beyond the manner of saying, "C'mon!". Recent winners include Attila the Hun, Adolf Hitler, and, however reluctantly, Dick "Boom Stick" Cheney. The after show for this award is the best. So says Q-day Hussein.
+
Alfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.".<ref>[http://www.nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/short_testamente.html Nobel's original will and testament]</ref> He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important 'discovery' or 'invention' within the field of physics." Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]'' and ''Technoetic Arts'', have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society.<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1038/448644c|pmid=17687300|title=Physics Nobels should favour inventions|year=2007|last1=Bartneck|first1=Christoph|last2=Rauterberg|first2=Matthias|journal=Nature|volume=448|issue=7154|page=644}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1386/tear.6.1.73_1|title=The asymmetry between discoveries and inventions in the Nobel Prize in Physics|year=2008|last1=Bartneck|first1=Christoph|last2=Rauterberg|first2=Matthias|journal=Technoetic Arts: a Journal of Speculative Research|volume=6|page=73}}</ref>
   
===Being a Creepy Bastard===
+
==Specially distinguished laureates==
Spun-off the Rape And Pillage award in 1003; first awarded to [[R. Kelly]] in 2003, then to [[Tom Cruise]], [[Karl Rove]] and [[Quentin Tarantino]]
+
[[File:Marie Curie.jpg|left|upright|thumb|alt=A black and white portrait of a woman in profile. |[[Marie Curie|Marie Skłodowska-Curie]], one of four people who have received the Nobel Prize twice (Physics and Chemistry)]]
   
===Finding of Doub-O===
+
===Multiple laureates===
This prize was claimed by Fort Kream Puph In The Order of ΠΔ. They had sighted Doub-O several times before confirming their finding of him. The time between when Doub-O went missing, and the time that he was found was called the The Great Doub-O-Pression. Further handing outs of this prize have been discontinued unless Doub-O goes missing again.
+
Four people have received two Nobel Prizes. [[Marie Curie|Marie Skłodowska-Curie]] received the Physics Prize in 1903 for the discovery of [[radioactive decay|radioactivity]] and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure [[radium]],<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/5715220/Marie-Curie-voted-greatest-female-scientist.html |title=Marie Curie voted greatest female scientist |work=The Daily Telegraph|publisher=Telegraph Media Group |date=2 July 2009 |accessdate=15 January 2010 |location=London}}</ref> making her the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. [[Linus Pauling]] won the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the [[chemical bond]] and its application to the [[Chemical structure|structure]] of complex substances. Pauling also won the Peace Prize in 1962 for his anti-nuclear activism, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. [[John Bardeen]] received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the [[transistor]] and in 1972 for the theory of [[superconductivity]].<ref name="Feldman180">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=180|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> [[Frederick Sanger]] received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the [[insulin]] molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.<ref name="Shalev78">{{cite book|author=Shalev, Baruch Aba|year=2005|page=78|authorlink=#Shalev69}}</ref><ref name="Feldman222">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=222|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
   
===Being Mr. T===
+
Two organisations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary.<ref name="Abrams84">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=84|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref name="Abrams149">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|page=149|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref><ref name="Abrams199-200">{{cite book|author=Abrams, Irwin|year=2001|pages=199–200|authorlink=#Abrams}}</ref> The [[United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees]] has won the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981.<ref name="Feldman313">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=313|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
Won by [[Mr T]] for 32 years in a row, until [[2001]] when [[Mick Jagger]] was the surprise winner. However, after Mr. T administered a severe beat-down to Jagger, the outcome being the swollen lip, and threatened the world with a nuclear holocaust, the judges reversed their decision.
 
   
===Indie (or Indiekypsaquetavexplip)===
+
===Family laureates===
The award for the person who gets the closest to defining Indie. Started 5-1-1974, has never been awarded.
+
The [[Curie (disambiguation)|Curie]] family has received the most prizes, with five. [[Marie Curie|Marie Skłodowska-Curie]] received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, [[Pierre Curie]], shared the 1903 Physics prize with her.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/curie_marie.shtml|title= Marie Curie (1867–1934)|publisher=BBC|accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref> Their daughter, [[Irène Joliot-Curie]], received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband [[Frédéric Joliot-Curie]]. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, [[Henry Richardson Labouisse, Jr.|Henry Labouisse]], was the director of [[UNICEF]] when it won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.<ref name="Feldman405">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=405|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref>
   
===Mathematics===
+
Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates.
Invariably awarded to the Mathstronaut who discovers the new Biggest Number Ever (which are now only found in space due to the thoughtless number ploughing seen on Earth in the 18th and 19th centuries). Many allege that there is no such prize, but this is merely a conspiracy propogated by the American government who use these numbers for encryption purposes and occasionally for tasteful throw rugs.
+
The husband-and-wife team of [[Gerty Radnitz Cori]] and [[Carl Ferdinand Cori]]
  +
shared the 1947 Prize in Physiology or Medicine.<ref name="GrinsteinBiermann1997">{{cite book|last1=Grinstein|first1=Louise S.|last2=Biermann|first2=Carol A.|last3=Rose|first3=Rose K.|title=Women in the Biological Sciences: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=oPGJZ7e06PQC&pg=PA108|accessdate=25 December 2012|year=1997|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-313-29180-7|pages=108–110}}</ref> [[J. J. Thomson]] was awarded the Physics Prize in 1906 for showing that [[electron]]s are particles. His son, [[George Paget Thomson]], received the same prize in 1937 for showing that they [[Wave-particle duality|also have the properties of waves]].<ref name="Gribbin91">{{cite book|author=Gribbin, John|year=1985|page=91|authorlink=#Gribbin69}}</ref> [[William Henry Bragg]] and his son, [[William Lawrence Bragg]], shared the Physics Prize in 1915.<ref name="Hargittai2003">{{cite book|last=Hargittai|first=István|title=The Road to Stockholm:Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=M9rF6MTXtXYC&pg=PA149|accessdate=25 December 2012|date=28 August 2003|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-860785-4|page=149}}</ref> [[Niels Bohr]] won the Physics prize in 1922, as did his son, [[Aage Bohr]], in 1975.<ref name=Feldman405/><ref>{{cite news|url= http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article6829396.ece|title= Professor Aage Bohr: Nobel prize-winning physicist|work= [[The Times]]|publisher=Times Newspapers Limited|date= 11 September 2009|accessdate=24 January 2010 |location=London}}</ref> [[Manne Siegbahn]], who received the Physics Prize in 1924, was the father of [[Kai Siegbahn]], who received the Physics Prize in 1981.<ref name=Feldman405/><ref>{{cite news|last= Maugh|first= Thomas H., II|url= http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-siegbahn8aug08,1,6152607.story|title= Kai Siegbahn, 89; Nobel-winning physicist invented electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis|publisher=Eddy Hartenstein|work= [[Los Angeles Times]]|date= 8 August 2007|accessdate=24 January 2010}}</ref> [[Hans von Euler-Chelpin]], who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of [[Ulf von Euler]], who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970.<ref name=Feldman405/> [[C. V. Raman|C.V. Raman]] won the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of [[Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar]], who won the same prize in 1983.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/95/950822.chandrasekhar.shtml|title= Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar|publisher= [[University of Chicago]]|date= 22 August 1995|accessdate=24 January 2010}}</ref><ref name="Feldman406">{{cite book|author=Feldman, Burton|year=2001|page=406|authorlink=#Feldman}}</ref> [[Arthur Kornberg]] received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959. Kornberg's son, [[Roger D. Kornberg|Roger]] later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006.<ref>{{cite web|last= Conger|first= Krista|url= http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2006/october11/kornberg-101106.html|title= Roger Kornberg wins the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry|work= Stanford Report|date= 4 October 2006|accessdate=24 January 2010}}</ref> [[Jan Tinbergen]], who won the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of [[Nikolaas Tinbergen]], who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize.<ref name=Feldman405/> [[Alva Myrdal]], Peace Prize winner in 1982, was the wife of [[Gunnar Myrdal]] who won the Economics Prize in 1974.<ref name=Feldman405/>
   
===Dyslexia===
+
==Refusals and constraints==
Teh nboel pizre fro dyslexia is arwarded ervy yaer to the perosn with the wosrt speling. It si prvoen that thre is corrletaoin between winers of this awrd and winers of cuontdown.
+
[[File:Richard Kuhn ETH-Bib Dia 248-065.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A black and white portrait of a man in a suit and tie. Half of his face is in a shadow.|[[Richard Kuhn]], who was forced to decline his Nobel Prize in Chemistry]]
  +
Two laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964 [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form."<ref>{{cite news|last= Holt|first= Jim|url= http://www.slate.com/id/2088648/|title= Exit, Pursued by a Lobster|work= [[Slate (magazine)|Slate]]|publisher=The Washington Post Company|date= 22 September 2003|accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref> The other is [[Lê Ðức Thọ]], chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the [[Paris Peace Accords]]. He declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam.<ref name="autogenerated4">{{cite news|last= English|first=Jason|url= http://edition.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/wayoflife/10/06/mf.nobel.odd.facts/index.html|title= Odd facts about Nobel Prize winners|work= [[CNN]]|date= 6 October 2009|accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref>
   
===Indignation===
+
During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered [[Richard Kuhn]], [[Adolf Butenandt]], and [[Gerhard Domagk]] from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, [[Boris Pasternak]] declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying "this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award."<ref name="autogenerated4"/> The Academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf.<ref name="timesonline-292690">{{cite news|last= Franchetti|first= Mark|title= How the CIA won Zhivago a Nobel|url= http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article1292690.ece|work=[[The Times]]|publisher=Times Newspapers Limited|date= 14 January 2007|accessdate=21 January 2010 |location=London}}</ref><ref name="washingtonpost">{{cite news|last= Finn|first= Peter|title= The Plot Thickens|url= http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/26/AR2007012601758.html|publisher=Katharine Weymouth|work=[[The Washington Post]]|date= 27 January 2007|accessdate=21 January 2010}}</ref> [[Aung San Suu Kyi]] was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in [[Burma]]; Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012.<ref>{{cite web|title=Aung San Suu Kyi > Biographical|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1991/kyi.html|publisher=The Nobel Foundation|accessdate=28 July 2012}}</ref> [[Liu Xiaobo]] was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners.
A prize first given to [[Syria]] for its flag burning performance against Denmark, Norway and USA. In subsequent years the prize went to [[Fred Phelps]] and [[Bill O'Reilly]].
 
   
===[[Plagiarism]]===
+
== Legacy ==
Awarded intermittently since 1920; notable winners include [[Limp Bizkit]], Dean Koontz, [[Dane Cook]]; automatically awarded to [[Wikipedia]] each year since 2002.
+
The memorial symbol "Planet of Alfred Nobel" was opened in Dnipropetrovsk University of Economics and Law at in 2008. On the globe there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing military strategic missiles.<ref>[http://www.panoramio.com/photo/27994903?comment_page=1 Monument of the Planet of Alfred Nobel]</ref><ref>[http://nobelplanet.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=2&lang=en Memorial symbol "Alfred Nobel Planet"]</ref>
   
===How To Win One In 3 Easy Steps===
+
==See also==
1) Ask a Jew
+
{{colbegin|3}}
  +
* [[Abel Prize]]
  +
* [[Crafoord Prize]]
  +
* [[Fields Medal]]
  +
* [[Ig Nobel Prize]]
  +
* [[Kyoto Prize]]
  +
* [[Seoul Peace Prize]]
  +
* [[List of Nobel laureates]]
  +
* [[List of Nobel laureates by country]]
  +
* [[List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation]]
  +
* [[List of prizes, medals, and awards]]
  +
* [[Nobel Conference]]
  +
* [[Nobel Library]]
  +
* [[Nobel Museum]]
  +
* [[Nobel Peace Center]]
  +
* [[Ramon Magsaysay Award]]
  +
* [[Right Livelihood Award]]
  +
* [[Rolf Schock Prizes]] in Logic and Philosophy, Mathematics, Visual Arts, and Musical Arts
  +
* [[Shaw Prize]]
  +
* [[The Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering]]
  +
* [[Turing Award]]
  +
{{colend}}
   
2) Ask a Male
+
==References==
  +
===Notes===
  +
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
   
3) Ask that friend of yours who is smart in that one way and is anti social but not really because he does get out and writes a bunch but not too much but usually a bunch somewhat and probally has black hair. Simple. I know.
+
===Bibliography===
  +
{{Refbegin|2}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Abrams|first=Irwin |title=The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates|url=http://books.google.com/?id=ny77bPwKxaUC&printsec=frontcover&q=|year=2001|publisher=Watson Publishing International|isbn=0-88135-388-4|ref=Abrams}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Crawford|first=Elizabeth T|title=The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution – The Science Prizes, 1901–1915|url=http://books.google.com/?id=EGfhs_tvjVYC|year=1984|publisher=Maison des Sciences de l'Homme & [[Cambridge University Press]]|edition=First|isbn=0-521-26584-3|ref=Crawford69}}
  +
* {{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/?id=xnckeeTICn0C&printsec=frontcover&q=|author=Feldman, Burton |title=The Nobel prize: a history of genius, controversy, and prestige|publisher=Arcade Publishing|year=2001|isbn=1-55970-592-2|ref=Feldman}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Gribbin|first=John|title=[[In Search of Schrödinger's Cat]]: Quantum Physics and Reality|year=1985|publisher=Corgi|isbn=0-552-12555-5|ref=Gribbin69}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Jones|first=Brenn|title=Learning about love from the life of Mother Teresa|url=http://books.google.com/?id=Bg6_1Ejy9r4C&dq=Mother+Teresa+Nobel+banquet+cancelled|year=2003|publisher=PowerKids Press|isbn=0-8239-5777-2|ref=Jones}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Levinovitz|first=Agneta Wallin|title=The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years|url=http://books.google.com/?id=QMSg5mRJiukC&printsec=frontcover&q=|editor=Nils Ringertz|year=2001 |publisher=[[Imperial College Press]] and [[World Scientific|World Scientific Publishing]]|isbn=981-02-4664-1|ref=Levinovitz69}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Leroy|first=Francis |title=A century of Nobel Prizes recipients: chemistry, physics, and medicine|url=http://books.google.com/?id=8DjwaFWE4fYC&printsec=frontcover&q|year=2003|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=0-8247-0876-8|ref=Leroy}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Söderlind|first=Ulrica|title= The Nobel Banquet|url=http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/7789|year=2010|publisher= World Scientific Publishing|isbn=13-978-981-4317-97-7|ref=judia85}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Pais|first=Abraham|authorlink=Abraham Pais|title=Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein|url=http://books.google.com/?id=IQibQgAACAAJ|year=1983|edition=Third|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0-19-520438-7|oclc=8195995|ref=Pais69}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Shalev|first=Baruch Aba |title=100 years of Nobel prizes|url=http://books.google.com/?id=PfRaPHr86XUC|year=2005|publisher=The Americas Group|edition=Third|isbn=978-0-935047-37-0|ref=Shalev69}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Sohlman|first=Ragnar|title=The Legacy of Alfred Nobel – The Story Behind the Nobel Prizes|year=1983|publisher=The Nobel Foundation|isbn=0-370-30990-I|authorlink=Ragnar Sohlman|ref=Sohlman69}}
  +
* {{cite book|last=Wilhelm|first=Peter |title=The Nobel Prize|url=http://books.google.com/?id=CNnZKHxQpO4C|year=1983|publisher=Springwood Books|isbn=978-0-86254-111-8|ref=Wilhelm69}}
  +
{{Refend}}
   
Added bonus: Get a moustache.
+
==External links==
  +
{{Commons category|Nobel Prize}}
  +
* [http://nobelprize.org/ Official Website]
  +
* [http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html Nobel Prizes by Universities and Institutes]
  +
* {{Britannica|416856}}
   
===Finding [[Bears|This Article]], Without Having Visited This Page Beforehand===
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{{Nobel Prizes}}
As of yet, no-one has been awarded this prize. Pity you can't be.
 
   
==See Also==
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<!--As featured article-->
* [[Nobel Peace Prize]]
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{{Good article}}
* [[Nobel Prize for Being Bono]]
 
* [[Swedish Academy]]
 
* [[Nobel Peas Prize]]
 
   
[[category:Nobel Prize]]
+
<!-- This article in other languages below—please respect alphabetical order -->
[[Category:Prizes]]
 
[[Category:Vital articles]]
 
   
[[de:Nobelpreisträger]]
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[[Category:Nobel Prize| ]]<!--leave the empty space as standard-->
[[es:Premios Nobel]]
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[[Category:Academic awards]]
[[it:Premio Nobel]]
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[[Category:Awards established in 1895]]
[[ja:ノーベル賞]]
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[[Category:International awards]]
[[zh:诺贝尔奖]]
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[[Category:Organizations based in Sweden]]
[[zh-tw:諾貝爾獎]]
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[[Category:Science and engineering awards]]

Revision as of 09:53, May 17, 2013

Template:Pp-protectedSymbol for vote a comprehensive list of Nobel Prize recipients sorted by year For more information on the distinct origin of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, see Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

Template:Use dmy dates

The Nobel Prize
220px
Awarded for Outstanding contributions in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physiology or Medicine, and Economic Sciences
Presented by Swedish Academy
Nobel committee of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Nobel committee of Karolinska Institutet
Norwegian Nobel Committee
First awarded 1901

The Nobel Prize (Template:IPA-sv, Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and/or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish philanthropist inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901.[1] The related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was created in 1968.

The Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics.[2]

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences; the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is not awarded by a Swedish organisation but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

The various prizes are awarded yearly. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation. Template:As of, each prize was worth 8 million SEK (c. Template:USD, €0.93 million). The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.[3] Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.[4]

History

File:AlfredNobel adjusted.jpg
Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper.

Alfred Nobel (Template:Audio) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.[5] He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite, a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. Nobel was even involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.[6]

In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.[7] On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old.[8]

Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. The last was written over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.[9][10] To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.[11] Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million, €150 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes.[12] Because of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway.[13] The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the award of prizes.[14]

Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were designated or established. These were the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.[15] The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded; and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.[11] In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. Thereafter, Norway's Nobel Committee was responsible for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize and the Swedish institutions retained responsibility for the other prizes.[13]

Nobel Foundation

Main article: Nobel Foundation
File:Alfred Nobels will-November 25th, 1895.jpg
Alfred Nobel's will stated that 94% of his total assets should be used to establish the Nobel Prizes.

The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organisation on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.[16] In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludwig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan and, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established".[17] Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates.[18][19] In many ways, the Nobel Foundation is similar to an investment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).[20] Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor (c. US$560 million).[21]

According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions. An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors.[21]

First prizes

File:Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad (1845-1923).jpg
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen received the first Physics Prize for his discovery of X-rays.

Once the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the Nobel Committees began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions. Originally, the Norwegian Nobel Committee appointed prominent figures including Jørgen Løvland, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson and Johannes Steen to give the Nobel Peace Prize credibility.[22] The committee awarded the Peace Prize to two prominent figures in the growing peace movement around the end of the 19th century. These were Frédéric Passy, co-founder of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, and Henry Dunant the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross.[23][24][25]

The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard's work on cathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize.[26][27] In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize."[28] The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for Jacobus van't Hoff.[29] Van't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics.[30][31]

The Swedish Academy chose the poet Sully Prudhomme for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoy to win.[32] Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferred Victorian literature and thus selected a Victorian poet.[33] The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.[34][35]

World War II

In 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes.[36] Each man was later able to receive the diploma and medal.[37] Even though Sweden was officially neutral during World War II, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940–42, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace.[38]

During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile. The remaining members escaped persecution from the Nazis when the Nobel Foundation stated that the Committee building in Oslo was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden.[39] These members kept the work of the Committee going but did not award any prizes. In 1944 the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again.[36]

File:Worldmapnobellaureatesbycountry2.PNG
Map of Nobel laureates by country.

Prize in Economic Sciences

In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honor of Nobel. The following year, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes."[40][41] Although not a Nobel Prize, it is intimately identified with the other awards; the laureates are announced with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the Prize in Economic Sciences is presented at the Swedish Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.[42] The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes.[43]

Award process

The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes; the main difference is in who can make nominations for each of them.[44] Template:Multiple image

Nominations

Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are often academics working in a relevant area. For the Peace Prize, inquiries are sent to governments, members of international courts, professors and rectors, former Peace Prize laureates and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award.[44][45] The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names.[46] The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.[47][48]

Selection

The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions.[49] The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote.[50] A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals.[51] If the Peace Prize is not awarded, the money is split among the scientific prizes. This has happened 19 times so far.[52]

Posthumous nominations

Although posthumous nominations are not permitted, individuals who die in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented.[53] On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced; however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M. Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously.[3] The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged.[54]

Recognition time lag

Nobel's will provides for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year". Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries.[55] However, some of these early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer.[56] To avoid this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time.[57][58][59] According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, "the criterion ‘the previous year’ is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident."[58]

File:Nobelinstituttet 20080913-01.jpg
The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel Committee

The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement.[60][61] The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts.[62][63] However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events.[64] For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations.[65] Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords.[66]

Although Nobel's will stated that prizes should be awarded for contributions made "during the preceding year", awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution.[67][68] Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died.[69][70][71]

Award ceremonies

Template:Multiple image Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony. The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events.[72][73] The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies' are held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel banquet following immediately at Stockholm City Hall. The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), at the auditorium of the University of Oslo (1947–1989) and at Oslo City Hall (1990–present).[74]

The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway.[73][75] At first King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. It is said that his mind changed once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden.[76]

Nobel banquet

File:Nobel-banquet-table.jpg
Table at the 2005 Nobel Banquet in Stockholm

After the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests. The banquet features a three-course dinner, entertainment, and dancing, and is covered extensively by Swedish media. The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Oslo at the Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the President of the Storting, the Prime Minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend for a five-course meal.[77] All aspects of the Nobel Banquet are carefully thought through including the experience from and round the meal. The colour and lighting of the banquet venue and the ambience it creates, the music being played, the acoustic of the venue, the design of the cutlery, furniture and glass are all taken into serious consideration.[78]

For the first time in its history, the banquet was cancelled in Oslo in 1979 because the laureate, Mother Teresa, refused to attend, saying the money would be better spent on the poor. Mother Teresa used the US$7,000 that was to be spent on the banquet to hold a dinner for 2,000 homeless people on Christmas Day.[79][80]

Nobel lecture

According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize.[81][82] The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format.[83] These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize. Some have happened even later. For example, US president Theodore Roosevelt won the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office.[84] The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates.[85]

Prizes

Medals

It was announced on 30 May 2012 that the Nobel Foundation had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Formerly, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by Myntverket (the Swedish Mint) in between 1902–2010. Myntverket, Sweden's oldest company, ceased operations in 2011 after 1,017 years. In 2011 the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation.[86] Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design. For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal.[87] The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design.[88]

File:Nobel Prize Diploma Fritz Haber 1918.JPG
Laureates receive a heavily decorated diploma together with a gold medal and the prize money. Here Fritz Haber's diploma is shown, which he received for the development of a method to synthesise ammonia.

All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Since then they have been struck in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about 175  (Expression error: Missing operand for *. ) for each medal. The diameter is 66 millimetres (2.5984251942 in) and the thickness varies between 5.2 millimetres (0.20472440924 in) and 2.4 millimetres (0.09448818888 in).[89] Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft.[90][91][92] During World War II, the medals of German scientists Max von Laue and James Franck were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, chemist George de Hevesy dissolved them in aqua regia, to prevent confiscation by Nazi Germany and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.[93]

Diplomas

Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden or the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them.[94] The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas.[95][96]

Award money

The laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded.[87] The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The purse has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was 880 000 SEK (c. 2.6 million SEK, US$350 000 or €295,000 today) per prize. In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million, €950,000).[97][98] In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK.[99] If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.[100][101][102] It is not uncommon for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes.[103][104]

Controversies and criticisms

Controversial recipients

Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize.[105][106][107]

File:Henry Kissinger.jpg
When it was announced that Henry Kissinger was to be awarded the Peace Prize two of the Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigned in protest.
Peace Prize

Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Ðức Thọ. Lê Ðức Thọ later declined the prize.[108] This led to two Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigning. Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities.[109] Many critics were of the opinion that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite; responsible for widening the war.[47][110]

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine.[47][111] However, many issues, such as the plight of Palestinian refugees, had not been addressed on the negotiations,[112] and no final status agreement was reached.[113] Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned.[114] Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers.[115]

Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to Barack Obama in 2009.[116] Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months.[52] Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award,[117][118] or worthy of the company it would place him in.[119] Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not yet earned it. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, also prompted accusations of a left-wing bias.[120]

Literature Prize

The award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art." He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure."[121][122] The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work.[123] This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric.[124]

Science prizes

In 1949, the Portuguese neurologist António Egas Moniz received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy. The previous year Dr. Walter Freeman had developed a version of the procedure which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern medical ethics. Endorsed by such influential publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize.[125][126]

Overlooked achievements

File:MKGandhi.jpg
The Norwegian Nobel Committee declined to award a prize in 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate."
File:Revolutionary Joyce Better Contrast.jpg
James Joyce, one of the controversial omissions of the Literature Prize

The Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mahatma Gandhi was nominated for the Peace Prize in 1937–39, 1947 and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948.[127] Later members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee expressed regret that he was not given the prize.[128] Geir Lundestad, Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee in 2006 said, "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question".[129] In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year.[128][130] Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi."[131] Other high profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been missed out. Foreign Policy lists Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh and Corazon Aquino as people who "never won the prize, but should have."[132]

The Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. Adam Kirsch has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism.[133][134] The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors.[135] Notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize include Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, Émile Zola, Jorge Luis Borges, Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, Ezra Pound, James Joyce, August Strindberg, Simon Vestdijk, John Updike, Arthur Miller, Chinua Achebe and Mark Twain.[136]

The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial.[137] When a prize is awarded to recognize an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that did not recognize the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.[138][139] Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. In 1962, Francis Crick, James D. Watson, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize for discovering the structure of DNA. Rosalind Franklin, a key contributor in that discovery, died of ovarian cancer four years earlier.[140] Lise Meitner, a physicist who co-discovered nuclear fission along with Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, was also denied the awardTemplate:Says who due to having to flee Germany when the Nazis came to power. Her role in the research was not fully understood until years later, when the team was awarded the U.S.'s Enrico Fermi Award.

Emphasis on discoveries over inventions

Alfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.".[141] He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important 'discovery' or 'invention' within the field of physics." Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in Nature and Technoetic Arts, have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society.[142][143]

Specially distinguished laureates

File:Marie Curie.jpg
Marie Skłodowska-Curie, one of four people who have received the Nobel Prize twice (Physics and Chemistry)

Multiple laureates

Four people have received two Nobel Prizes. Marie Skłodowska-Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for the discovery of radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium,[144] making her the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Linus Pauling won the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances. Pauling also won the Peace Prize in 1962 for his anti-nuclear activism, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity.[145] Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.[146][147]

Two organisations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary.[148][149][150] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981.[151]

Family laureates

The Curie family has received the most prizes, with five. Marie Skłodowska-Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her.[152] Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when it won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.[153]

Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates. The husband-and-wife team of Gerty Radnitz Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori shared the 1947 Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[154] J. J. Thomson was awarded the Physics Prize in 1906 for showing that electrons are particles. His son, George Paget Thomson, received the same prize in 1937 for showing that they also have the properties of waves.[155] William Henry Bragg and his son, William Lawrence Bragg, shared the Physics Prize in 1915.[156] Niels Bohr won the Physics prize in 1922, as did his son, Aage Bohr, in 1975.[153][157] Manne Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1924, was the father of Kai Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1981.[153][158] Hans von Euler-Chelpin, who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of Ulf von Euler, who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970.[153] C.V. Raman won the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who won the same prize in 1983.[159][160] Arthur Kornberg received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959. Kornberg's son, Roger later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006.[161] Jan Tinbergen, who won the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize.[153] Alva Myrdal, Peace Prize winner in 1982, was the wife of Gunnar Myrdal who won the Economics Prize in 1974.[153]

Refusals and constraints

File:Richard Kuhn ETH-Bib Dia 248-065.jpg
Richard Kuhn, who was forced to decline his Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Two laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form."[162] The other is Lê Ðức Thọ, chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords. He declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam.[163]

During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying "this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award."[163] The Academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf.[164][165] Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in Burma; Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012.[166] Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners.

Legacy

The memorial symbol "Planet of Alfred Nobel" was opened in Dnipropetrovsk University of Economics and Law at in 2008. On the globe there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing military strategic missiles.[167][168]

See also

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