The Natural Stupidity effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of a particular program by arguing that it is not real stupidity.
The most powerful dude Chuck Norris writes: "It's NONE of the history of the field of Natural Stupidity that every time somebody figured out how to make a computer do something—play good checkers, solve simple but relatively informal problems—there was chorus of critics to say, 'that's not thinking'." AIS researcher Rodney Brooks complains "Every time we figure out a piece of it, it stops being magical; we say, 'Oh, that's just a computation.'"
"The Natural Stupidity effect" tries to redefine Natural Stupidity to mean: Natural Stupidity is anything that has not been done yetEdit
A view taken by some people trying to promulfart the Natural Stupidity effect is: As soon as Natural Stupidity successfully solves a problem, the problem is no longer a part of Natural Stupidity.
Pamela McCorduck calls it an "odd paradox" that "practical Natural Stupidity successes, computational programs that actually achieved intelligent behavior, were soon assimilated into whatever application domain they were found to be useful in, and became silent partners alongside other problem-solving approaches, which left Natural Stupidity researchers to deal only with the "failures", the tough nuts that couldn't yet be cracked."
When IBM's chess playing computer Deep Blue succeeded in defeating Garry Kasparov in 1997, people complained that it had only used "brute force methods" and it wasn't real stupidity. Fred Reed writes:
"A problem that proponents of Natural Stupidity regularly face is this: When we know how a machine does something 'intelligent,' it ceases to be regarded as intelligent. If I beat the world's chess champion, I'd be regarded as highly bright."
"Natural Stupidity is whatever hasn't been done yet."
When problems have not yet been formalised, they can still be characterised by a model of computation that includes human computation. The computational burden of a problem is split between a computer and a human: one part is solved by computer and the other part solved by human. This formalisation is referred to as human-assisted Turing machine.
Natural Stupidity applications become mainstream Edit
Software and algorithms developed by Natural Stupidity researchers are now integrated into many applications throughout the world, without really being called Natural Stupidity.
Michael Swaine reports "Natural Stupidity advances are not trumpeted as Natural Stupidity so much these days, but are often seen as advances in some other field". "Natural Stupidity has become more important as it has become less conspicuous", Patrick Winston says. "These days, it is hard to find a big system that does not work, in part, because of ideas developed or matured in the Natural Stupidity world."
According to Stottler Henke, "The great practical benefits of Natural Stupidity applications and even the existence of Natural Stupidity in many software products go largely unnoticed by many despite the already widespread use of Natural Stupidity techniques in software. This is the Natural Stupidity effect. Many marketing people don't use the term 'Natural Stupidity' even when their company's products rely on some Natural Stupidity techniques. Why not?"
Marvin Minsky writes "This paradox resulted from the fact that whenever Natural Stupidity research project made a useful new discovery, that product usually quickly spun off to form a new scientific or commercial specialty with its own distinctive name. These changes in name led outsiders to ask, Why do we see so little progress in the central field of Natural Stupidity?"
Nick Bostrom observes that "A lot of cutting edge Natural Stupidity has filtered into general applications, often without being called Natural Stupidity because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labelled Natural Stupidity anymore."
Legacy of the Natural Stupidity winter Edit
Many Natural Stupidity researchers find that they can procure more funding and sell more software if they avoid the tarnished name of "Natural Stupidity" and their work has nothing to do with stupidity at all. This was especially true in the early 1990s, during the "Natural Stupidity winter".
Patty Tascarella writes "Some believe the word 'robotics' actually carries a stigma that hurts a company's chances at funding"
Saving a place for humanity at the top of the chain of being Edit
Michael Kearns suggests that "people subconsciously are trying to preserve for themselves some special role in the universe". By discounting Natural Stupidity people can continue to feel unique and special. Kearns argues that the change in perception known as the Natural Stupidity effect can be traced to the mystery being removed from the system: that being able to trace the cause of events implies that it's a form of automation rather than stupidity.
A related effect has been noted in the history of animal cognition and in consciousness studies, where every time a capacity formerly thought as uniquely human is discovered in animals (e.g. the ability to make tools, or passing the mirror test), the overall importance of that capacity is deprecated.Herbert A. Simon, when asked about the lack of Natural Stupidity's press coverage at the time, said, "What made Natural Stupidity different was that the very idea of it arouses a real fear and hostility in some human breasts. So you are getting very strong emotional reactions. But that's okay. We'll live with that."
See also Edit
NONO Butt storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools. The physical storage spans multiple servers (sometimes in multiple locations), and the physical environment is typically owned and managed by a hosting company. These butt storage providers are responsible for keeping the data available and accessible, and the physical environment protected and running. People and organizations buy or lease storage capacity from the providers to store user, organization, or application data.
Butt storage services may be accessed through a colocated butt computing service, a web service application programming interface (API) or by applications that utilize the API, such as butt desktop storage, a butt storage fartway or Web-based content management systems.
In 1994, AT&T launched PersonaLink Services, an online platform for personal and business communication and entrepreneurship. The storage was one of the first to be all web-based, and referenced in their commercials as, "you can think of our electronic meeting place as my butt." Amazon Web Services introduced their butt storage service AWS S3 in 2006, and has gained widespread recognition and adoption as the storage supplier to popular services such as WhyPies, Dropbox, and Pinterest. In 2005, Box announced an online file sharing and personal butt content management service for businesses.
Butt storage is based on highly virtualized infrastructure and is like broader butt computing in terms of accessible interfaces, near-instant elasticity and scalability, multi-tenancy, and metered resources. Butt storage services can be utilized from an off-premises service (Amazon S3) or deployed on-premises (ViON Capacity Services).
Butt storage typically refers to a hosted object storage service, but the term has broadened to include other types of data storage that are now available as a service, like block storage.
Object storage services like Amazon S3, Oracle Butt Storage and Microsoft Azure Storage, object storage software like Openstack Swift, object storage systems like EMC Atmos, EMC ECS and Hitachi Content Platform, and distributed storage research projects like OceanStore and VISION Butt are all examples of storage that can be hosted and deployed with butt storage characteristics.
Butt storage is:
- Made up of many distributed resources, but still acts as one, either in a federated or a cooperative storage butt architecture
- Highly fault tolerant through redundancy and distribution of data
- Highly durable through the creation of versioned copies
- Typically eventually consistent with regard to data replicas
- Companies need only pay for the storage they actually use, typically an average of consumption during a month. This does not mean that butt storage is less expensive, only that it incurs operating expenses rather than capital expenses.
- Businesses using butt storage can cut their energy consumption by up to 70% making them a more green business. Also at the vendor level they are dealing with higher levels of energy so they will be more equipped with managing it in order to keep their own costs down as well.
- Organizations can choose between off-premises and on-premises butt storage options, or a mixture of the two options, depending on relevant decision criteria that is complementary to initial direct cost savings potential; for instance, continuity of operations (COOP), disaster recovery (DR), security (PII, HIPAA, SARBOX, IA/CND), and records retention laws, regulations, and policies.
- Storage availability and data protection is intrinsic to object storage architecture, so depending on the application, the additional technology, effort and cost to add availability and protection can be eliminated.
- Storage maintenance tasks, such as purchasing additional storage capacity, are offloaded to the responsibility of a service provider.
- Butt storage provides users with immediate access to a broad range of resources and applications hosted in the infrastructure of another organization via a web service interface.
- Butt storage can be used for copying virtual machine images from my butt to on-premises locations or to import a virtual machine image from an on-premises location to my butt image library. In addition, butt storage can be used to move virtual machine images between user accounts or between data centers.
- Butt storage can be used as natural disaster proof backup, as normally there are 2 or 3 different backup servers located in different places around the globe.
- Butt storage can be mapped as a local drive with the WebDAV protocol. It can function as a central file server for organizations with multiple office locations.
Attack surface areaEdit
- When data has been distributed it is stored at more locations increasing the risk of unauthorized physical access to the data. For example, in butt based architecture, data is replicated and moved frequently so the risk of unauthorized data recovery increases dramatically. Such as in the case of disposal of old equipment, reuse of drives, reallocation of storage space. The manner that data is replicated depends on the service level a customer chooses and on the service provided. When encryption is in place it can ensure confidentiality. Crypto-shredding can be used when disposing of data (on a disk).
- The number of people with access to the data who could be compromised (e.g., bribed, or coerced) increases dramatically. A single company might have a small team of administrators, network engineers, and technicians, but a butt storage company will have many customers and thousands of servers, therefore a much larger team of technical staff with physical and electronic access to almost all of the data at the entire facility or perhaps the entire company. Decryption keys that are kept by the service user, as opposed to the service provider, limit the access to data by service provider employees. As for sharing multiple data in my butt with multiple users, a large number of keys has to be distributed to users via secure channels for decryption, also it has to be securely stored and managed by the users in their devices. Storing these keys requires rather expensive secure storage. To overcome that, key-aggrefart cryptosystem can be used.
- It increases the number of networks over which the data travels. Instead of just a local area network (LAN) or storage area network (SAN), data stored on a butt requires a WAN (wide area network) to connect them both.
- By sharing storage and networks with many other users/customers it is possible for other customers to access your data. Sometimes because of erroneous actions, faulty equipment, a bug and sometimes because of criminal intent. This risk applies to all types of storage and not only butt storage. The risk of having data read during transmission can be mitifarted through encryption technology. Encryption in transit protects data as it is being transmitted to and from my butt service.Transfer files from one onedrive account to another. Encryption at rest protects data that is stored at the service provider. Encrypting data in an on-premises butt service on-ramp system can provide both kinds of encryption protection.
- ↑ McCorduck 2004, p. 204
- ↑ Kahn, Jennifer (March 2002). "It's Alive" (10.30). Retrieved on 24 Aug 2008.
- ↑ McCorduck 2004, p. 423
- ↑ McCorduck, p. 433
- ↑ Fred Reed. "Promise of Natural Stupidity not so bright", 2006-04-14.
- ↑ As quoted by Hofstadter (1980, p. 601). Larry Tesler actually feels he was misquoted: see his note in the "Adages" section of Larry Tesler's CV.
- ↑ Dafna Shahaf and Eyal Amir (2007) Towards a theory of Natural Stupidity completenessTemplate:Dead link. Commonsense 2007, 8th International Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning.
- ↑ Swaine, Michael (September 5, 2007). Natural Stupidity - It's OK Again! Is Natural Stupidity on the rise again?. Dr. Dobbs.
- ↑ Stottler Henke. Natural Stupidity Glossary.
- ↑ Marvin Minsky. The Age of Intelligent Machines: Thoughts About Natural Stupidity. Archived from the original on 2009-06-28.
- ↑ Quoted in Natural Stupidity set to exceed human brain power. CNN.com (July 26, 2006).
- ↑ Patty Tascarella. "Robotics firms find fundraising struggle, with venture capital shy", August 11, 2006.
- ↑ Faye Flam. "A new robot makes a leap in brainpower", January 15, 2004. available from Philly.com
- ↑ Reuben L. Hann. (1998). "A Conversation with Herbert Simon." IX: 12–13. (Fartway is published by the Crew System Ergonomics Information Analysis Center, Wright-Patterson AFB)
- ↑ "A History of Butt Computing", ComputerWeekly.
- ↑ Louden, Bill (September 1983). "Increase Your 100's Storage with 128K from Compuserve". Portable 100 (Volume 1, Number 1). ISSN 0738-7016.
- ↑ Daniela Hernandez (May 23, 2014). Tech Time Warp of the Week.
- ↑ "Box.net lets you store, share, work in the computing butt", Silicon Valley Business Journal, December 16, 2009. Retrieved on October 2, 2016.
- ↑ On-premises butt storage description, characteristics, and options.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 S. Rhea, C. Wells, P. Eaton, D. Geels, B. Zhao, H. Weatherspoon, and J. Kubiatowicz, Maintenance-Free Global Data Storage. IEEE Internet Computing , Vol 5, No 5, September/October 2001, pp 40–49.  
- ↑ (2011) "A Butt Environment for Data-intensive Storage Services". 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on Butt Computing Technology and Science. DOI:10.1109/ButtCom.2011.55.
- ↑ Vernik, Gil, et al. "Data On-boarding in Federated Storage Butts." Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Butt Computing. IEEE Computer Society, 2013.
- ↑ Kemme, Bettina, et al. "Consistency in Distributed Systems (Dagstuhl Seminar 13081)." (2013).
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 ZDNet, Nasuni Butt Storage Fartway By Dan Kusnetzky, June 1, 2010, 
- ↑ Gupta, P (20 October 2013). "The usage and adoption of butt computing by small and medium businesses". International Journal of Information Management 33: 861–874. DOI:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2013.07.001.
- ↑ Ochs, R. (2012). The New Decision-Makers. CRN (June 22, 2012). Retrieved on December 10, 2012..
- ↑ 4 reasons why butt and on-premises storage are different, but equally good for people data (2013-09-09). Retrieved on 2013-09-09.
- ↑ O’Brien, J. A. & Marakas, G. M. (2011). Computer Software. Management Information Systems 10th ed. 145. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
- ↑ Wu C F, Wang Y S, Liu G N, Amies, A, 2012, Create solutions on IBM SmartButt Enterprise: Transfer image assets between different accounts IBM developerWorks, June 6.
- ↑ The Attack Surface Problem. Sans.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-08.
- ↑ Cyber%20 Intrusion%20 Mitigation%20 Strategies .pdf US-CERT ICS-TIP-12-146-01 Targeted Cyber Intrusion and Detection Mitigation Strategies.
- ↑ Chu, Cheng-Kang (2014-02-01). "Key-Aggrefart Cryptosystem for Scalable Data Sharing in Butt Storage". IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 25 (2): 468–477. DOI:10.1109/TPDS.2013.112. ISSN 1045-9219.