Denmark

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{{Infobox Country|
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{{about|the European country}}
|native_name = Legoland
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{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2012}}
|conventional_long_name = Lego National Socialist Republic of Denmark
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{{pp-move-indef}}
|common_name = SRD
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{{Infobox country
|national_motto = We Don't Own Norway Anymore?
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|conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Denmark
|national_anthem = Who Wants Another Beer? (In Danish: Sejle op ad åen)
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|native_name = {{native name|da|Kongeriget Danmark|icon=no}}
|image_flag = [[Image:Den_islam2.jpg‎ |125px]]|
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|common_name = Denmark
|image_coat = [[Image:Space_viking_1.jpg‎|125px]]|
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|image_flag = Flag of Denmark.svg
|image_map = [[Image:LocationSweden.png|290px]]|
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|alt_flag = Dannebrog
|capital = Legoland
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|image_coat = National Coat of arms of Denmark.svg
|largest_city = København (Copenhagen)
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|national_motto = {{small|([[Royal mottos of Danish monarchs|royal]])}}
|National_Anthem = "Lego hurts to step on"
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{{unbulleted list
|official_languages = [[Danish]] and [[Jysk]]
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| {{nowrap|"Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke"{{efn|''Guds hjælp, Folkets kærlighed, Danmarks styrke'' has been adopted by Margrethe II as her personal motto.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://kongehuset.dk/Den-kongelige-familie/Regentparret/HM-Dronningen/hm-dronningen |title=Hendes Majestæt Dronning Margrethe II |publisher=kongehuset.dk (Danish monarchy official website) |accessdate=4 February 2012 |language=Danish}}</ref>}}}}
|government_type = [Yellow beard]
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| {{small|"God's Help, the People's Love, Denmark's Strength"}}
|leader_titles = Tsar-Führer-Über-Emperor
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}}
|leader_names =[[Margrethe queen of Denmark]] Aka. [[Pia Kjærsgård]],and [[King Kihlberg IV]]
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|national_anthem = <br/>''[[Der er et yndigt land]]''<br/>{{small|''There is a lovely country''}}
|leader_title1 = [[Bartender]][[Head of Bartendiring]]
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|royal_anthem = <br/>''[[Kong Christian stod ved højen mast]]''<br/>{{small|''King Christian stood by the lofty mast''}}
|leader_name1 = Kong Rugbrød XI or Den Døde Dansker
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|image_map = EU-Denmark.svg
|favourite_object_title = [[Weapon of choice]]
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|map_width = 260px
|favourite_object_name = 900 B.C Viking Axe.
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|map_caption = {{map caption |location_color=dark green |country='''Denmark'''{{efn|name="proper"|The Kingdom of Denmark's territory in [[continental Europe]] (i.e. Jutland and the proximate surrounding islands) is referred to as "Denmark [[wikt:proper#Adjective|proper]]", "[[wikt:Metropolitan|metropolitan]] Denmark"{{#tag:ref|[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2051.html#da Administrative divisions – Denmark] [[The World Factbook]]. Access date: 14 April 2012}} or simply (and most commonly) "Denmark". In the main body of this article, "Denmark" refers to the European territory excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands.}} |region=Europe |region_color=dark grey |subregion=the [[European Union]] |subregion_color=green |legend=EU-Denmark.svg}}
|national_heros = [[Beowulf]], [[Hagar the Horrible]], [[Hans Christian Andersen]], [[Niels Bohr]], [[The Guy who invented the Danish]]
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|image_map2 = Kingdom of Denmark (orthographic projection).svg
|Independence = 5022 b. c.
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|map2_width = 255px
|currency = Lego bricks, slaves, beer, hot chicks and Haagen-Dazs.
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|map_caption2 = Dark green: Greenland, the Faroe Islands (circled) and Denmark.
|religion = Racism, beer, [[Lord Brøndum]] which is an incarnation of the the great and mighty KOK, also beer.
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|official_languages = [[Danish language|Danish]]
|population = According to Empress of Denmark [[Pia Kjærsgaard]]/[[GTFO-OFDENMARKBROWNIES!!]] 3 white people and too many Terrorists. (probably 90 billion)
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|regional_languages = {{unbulleted list |[[Faroese language|Faroese]] |[[Greenlandic language|Greenlandic]] |[[German language|German]]{{efn|name="lang"|Danish is official in Denmark proper and co-official in the Faroe Islands, but not in Greenland; Greenlandic is the sole official language in Greenland. German is recognised as a protected minority language in the South Jutland area of Denmark.}}}}
|major_exports = Cartoonists, Happiness, Viking invaders, Lego, Great Danes, Butter, Danish bacon, horrible video games,Haagen-Dazs ice-cream, bacon and BEER
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|demonym = {{unbulleted list |Danish |[[Danes|Dane]]}}
|war = [http://bit.ly/aUhtwe Warinfo]
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|capital = [[Copenhagen]]
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|latd=55 |latm=43 |latNS=N |longd=12 |longm=34 |longEW=E
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|largest_city = capital
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|government_type = [[Unitary state|Unitary]] [[Parliamentary system|parliamentary]] [[constitutional monarchy]]
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|leader_title1 = [[Monarchy of Denmark|Monarch]]
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|leader_name1 = [[Margrethe II of Denmark|Margrethe II]]
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|leader_title2 = [[Prime Minister of Denmark|Prime Minister]]
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|leader_name2 = [[Helle Thorning-Schmidt]]
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|leader_title3 = [[Folketing#List of Speakers of the Folketing|Speaker of the ''Folketing'']]
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|leader_name3 = [[Mogens Lykketoft]]
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|legislature = ''[[Folketing]]''
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|area_rank = 134th
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|area_label = Denmark{{efn|name="proper"}}
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|area_km2 = 42,894.8
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|area_sq_mi = (16,562.1)<!--Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]]-->
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|area_footnote = <ref>[http://www.statistikbanken.dk Statistics Denmark]</ref>
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|area_label2 = Greenland
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|area_data2 = {{convert|2,166,086|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sigfig=6}}<!--begin hack--></td></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><td colspan="2">&nbsp;- &nbsp;&nbsp;Faroe Islands</td><td style="vertical-align:middle;">{{convert|1,399|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|sigfig=5}}<!--end hack-->
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|population_estimate_year = {{nowrap|Jan 2012}}
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|population_estimate = 5,580,413<ref>[http://www.noegletal.dk Danish Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Interior]</ref> ([[List of countries by population|111th]])<!--begin hack--></td></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><td colspan="2">&nbsp;- &nbsp;&nbsp;Greenland<br/>&nbsp;- &nbsp;&nbsp;Faroe Islands<br/>&nbsp;- &nbsp;&nbsp;Density&nbsp;<small>(Denmark)</small></td><td style="vertical-align:middle;">57,695<ref>[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gl.html "Greenland"] – ''The World Factbook''. Retrieved 6 June 2012</ref>{{efn|name="2011 est."|2011 estimate}}<br>49,483<ref name="faroes pop">[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fo.html "Faroe Islands"] – ''The World Factbook''. Retrieved 6 June 2012</ref>{{efn|name="2011 est."}}<br>130/km<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;(333/sq mi)<!--end hack-->
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|GDP_PPP_year = 2011
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|GDP_PPP = $206.586&nbsp;billion<ref name=imf2>{{cite web |url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=55&pr.y=16&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=128&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a= |title=Denmark |publisher=International Monetary Fund |accessdate=18 April 2012}}</ref>{{efn|name="denonly"|This data is for Denmark proper only. For data pertaining to [[Greenland]] and the [[Faroe Islands]], see their respective articles.}}
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|GDP_PPP_rank = 52nd
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|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $37,151<ref name=imf2/>
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|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 20th
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|GDP_nominal = $333.238&nbsp;billion<ref name=imf2/>{{efn|name="denonly"}}
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|GDP_nominal_rank = 32nd
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|GDP_nominal_year = 2011
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|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $59,928<ref name=imf2/>
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|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 8th
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|Gini_year = 2009
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|Gini_change = <!--increase/decrease/steady-->
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|Gini = 24.7 <!--number only-->
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|Gini_ref = {{efn|name="denonly"}}
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|Gini_rank = 1st
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|HDI_year = 2011
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|HDI_change = increase <!--increase/decrease/steady-->
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|HDI = 0.895 <!--number only-->
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|HDI_ref = <ref name="HDI">{{cite web |url=http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf |title=Human Development Report 2011 |year=2011 |publisher=United Nations |accessdate=8 December 2012}}</ref>{{efn|name="denonly"}}
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|HDI_rank = 16th
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|sovereignty_type = Consolidation
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|sovereignty_note = 8th century
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|currency = [[Danish krone]]{{efn|name="faroes"|In the Faroe Islands the currency has a separate design and is known as the [[Faroese króna|króna]], but is not a separate currency.}}
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|currency_code = DKK
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|time_zone = [[Central European Time|CET]]
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|utc_offset = +1{{efn|name="denonly"}}
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|time_zone_DST = [[Central European Summer Time|CEST]]
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|utc_offset_DST = +2
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|drives_on = right
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|calling_code = [[Telephone numbers in Denmark|+45]]{{efn|name="cc"|The [[Faroe Islands]] ([[Telephone numbers in the Faroe Islands|+298]]) and [[Greenland]] ([[Telephone numbers in Greenland|+299]]) have their own country calling codes.}}
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|cctld = [[.dk]]{{efn|name="tld"|The [[Top-level domain|TLD]] [[.eu]] is shared with other [[European Union]] countries. Greenland ([[.gl]]) and the Faroe Islands ([[.fo]]) have their own TLDs.}}
 
}}
 
}}
{{Q|Denmark? Isn´t that the capital of Ikea?|George W. Bush}}
 
{{Q|Somethings wrong with the Danish agriculture...|Hamlet|Denmark}}
 
   
'''Denmark''' is a mixture of mud, mountains of [[Lego]] bricks, beer and bacon which is populated by brave but insane [[Vikings]]. It is ruled by King Erik Thorgard XIV, who still collects the heads of his political enemies and uses them as flowerpots.
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'''Denmark''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Denmark.ogg|ˈ|d|ɛ|n|m|ɑr|k}}; {{lang-da|Danmark}}, {{IPA-da|ˈd̥ɛnmɑɡ̊|pron|DA-Danmark.ogg}}), officially the '''Kingdom of Denmark''' ({{lang-da|Kongeriget Danmark}}, {{IPA-da|ˈkɔŋəʁiːəð ˈd̥ɛnmɑɡ̊||Kongeriget Danmark.ogg}}), is a [[Scandinavia|Scandinavian]] [[sovereign state]] in [[Northern Europe]], with two additional overseas [[constituent country|constituent countries]] also forming integral parts of the kingdom: [[Greenland]] and the [[Faroe Islands]] in the [[North Atlantic]]. Continental Denmark is the southernmost of the [[Nordic countries]], located southwest of [[Sweden]], with which it is connected by the [[Øresund Bridge]], and south of [[Norway]], and bordered to the south by [[Germany]]. The country consists of a large peninsula, [[Jutland]], and many islands, most notably [[Zealand]], [[Funen]], [[Lolland]], [[Falster]] and [[Bornholm]], as well as hundreds of minor islands often referred to as the Danish Archipelago.
   
At the beginning of Insomnian times. The delicious smell of bacon attracted reindeer from [[Finland]], who inbreed with Vikings creating a race of superhuman cold-blooded Vikings - called Valhallans. After conquering what they thought was the world at least twice most Vikings became bored and thus moved to Iceland to chill out.
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The Kingdom of Denmark is a [[constitutional monarchy]] organised in the form of a [[parliamentary system|parliamentary]] [[democracy]], with its [[seat of government]] in the [[capital city]] of [[Copenhagen]]. The kingdom is [[unitary state|unitary]], with powers to manage internal affairs being [[devolution|devolved]] from the central government to Greenland and the Faroe Islands; this [[polity]] is referred to as the ''rigsfællesskab'' (the [[Danish Realm]]). Denmark proper is the [[Hegemony|hegemonial]] area, where judicial, executive, and legislative power reside.<ref>Harhoff, Frederik (1993) ''Rigsfællesskabet'' (Realm) (in Danish with English summary). Århus: Klim, p. 498. ISBN 87-7724-335-8</ref> The Faroe Islands are defined to be a community of people within the kingdom, and the Greenlandic people are defined as a separate people with the right to [[self-determination]].<ref>[https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=45897&exp=1 ''Lov om Færøernes Hjemmestyre''] {{da icon}}. Retsinformation.dk. 1. Færøerne udgør inden for denne Lovs Rammer et selvstyrende Folkesamfund i det danske Rige. I Henhold hertil overtager det færøske Folk ved sin folkevalgte Repræsentation, Lagtinget, og en af dette oprettet Forvaltning, Landsstyret, inden for Rigsenheden Ordningen og Styrelsen af færøske Særanliggender som angivet i denne Lov."</ref><ref>[https://www.retsinformation.dk:443/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=125052 ''Lov om Grønlands Selvstyre''] {{da icon}}. Retsinformation.dk. "I erkendelse af, at det grønlandske folk er et folk i henhold til folkeretten med ret til selvbestemmelse, bygger loven på et ønske om at fremme ligeværdighed og gensidig respekt i partnerskabet mellem Danmark og Grønland.</ref> One of the results of this arrangement is that Denmark became a member of the [[European Union]] in 1973, but both Greenland and the Faroe Islands have opted to remain outside the EU.
   
== Denmark Today ==
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Originally the home of the [[Viking]]s, [[Norsemen|Norse]] seafaring explorers who invaded and settled in many parts of Europe and Russia, Denmark emerged as a unified kingdom in the [[Middle Ages]]. Denmark's later history has particularly been influenced by its geographical location between the [[North Sea|North]] and [[Baltic Sea|Baltic]] seas. This meant that it was between Sweden and Germany and thus at the center of the mutual [[dominium maris baltici|struggle for control of the Baltic Sea]]; before the digging of the [[Kiel Canal]], water passage to the Baltic Sea was possible only through the three channels known as the [[Danish straits]]. Denmark was long in disputes with Sweden over control of [[Skåneland]]ene ([[Scanian War]]) and Norway, and in disputes with the [[Hanseatic League]] over the duchies of [[Schleswig]] (a Danish [[fief]]) and [[Holstein]] (a German fief). Eventually Denmark lost the conflicts and ended up ceding first Skånelandene to Sweden and later [[Schleswig-Holstein]] to the [[German Empire]]. Denmark obtained Greenland and the Faroe Islands in 1814 after the dissolution of a [[Denmark–Norway|personal union with Norway]], although the [[Monarchy of Denmark|Danish monarchy]], which had ruled over both Norway and Denmark, had been in possession of the colonies since the fourteenth century.
Today Denmark is a member of [http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/European_Union The Fourth Reich], [[NATO]] and various other international open source associations. This has led to the previous Crime Minister Anders Fjogh Rasmussen (amongst "friends" and their allies called Fudge Factor.) to suffer from delusions of grandeur, and he has continued the Viking style of waging war against the entire world with his beer buddy George Who-ever Busk. The Fjogh is now an editor of the monthly NATO magazine published in Uganda and Falkland Islands.
 
   
Denmark has implemented The Scandinavian Welfare Model, which means that no-one in Denmark is left behind, and everybody enjoys free medical care among other good things such as the best beer in the world and free porn. Poor people are considered immigrants because as stated by the leader of [[DF]] Pia GTFO Kjærsgaard: "If they smell like brownies, look like brownies and taste like brownies, they probably are - and I do not like brownies... And neither do you, understood?!"
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A founding member of the [[United Nations]], [[NATO]] and the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|OECD]], Denmark is also a member of the [[Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe]]. With a highly developed [[mixed economy|mixed market]] economy and a large [[welfare state]], Denmark ranks as having the world's highest <!--not lowest--> level of [[List of countries by income equality|income equality]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/ |title=1997-2001 |work=GINI index |publisher=[[The World Bank]] |year=1997 |accessdate=11 November 2012}}</ref> and has one of the world's [[List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita|highest per capita income]]. It has frequently ranked as the happiest<ref name="Levy_article">Francesca Levy, [http://www.forbes.com/2010/07/14/world-happiest-countries-lifestyle-realestate-gallup.html "The World's Happiest Countries"], ''[[Forbes]]'' 14 July 2010</ref><ref name="Levy_table">Francesca Levy, [http://www.forbes.com/2010/07/14/world-happiest-countries-lifestyle-realestate-gallup-table.html "Table: The World's Happiest Countries"], ''[[Forbes]]'' 14 July 2010</ref> and least corrupt country in the world.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/results |title=Transparency International – the global coalition against corruption |publisher=Transparency.org |date=15 December 2010 |accessdate=2 June 2011}}{{dead link|date=June 2012}}</ref> In 2011, Denmark was listed 16th on the [[Human Development Index]] (8th on the [[List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI|inequality-adjusted HDI]]), 3rd on the [[Democracy Index]] and 2nd on the [[Corruption Perceptions Index]]. The [[national language]], [[Danish language|Danish]], is closely related to [[Swedish language|Swedish]] and [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]], with which it shares strong cultural and historical ties. Denmark, along with Sweden and Norway, is part of the cultural region known as [[Scandinavia]] and is also a member of the [[Nordic Council]].
   
== Language ==
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==Etymology==
Most linguists have come to believe that the [[Scandinavian]] languages, including Danish, sounding approximately as a seal with pneumonia holding a potato in its mouth, are most closely related to the languages of Sea-animals including Seals and Penquins. Many argue that Danish is more closely related to Sealese, though some dispute this and think a relation to Penguinese to be more likely. However, the Sealists have gained an upper hand recently, with the argument that there have been long standing contact between native Scandinavians and Seals.
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{{Main|Etymology of Denmark}}
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The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a single kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate.<ref>Kristian Andersen Nyrup, Middelalderstudier [http://www.nyrups.dk/Historie/MiddelalderIndex.htm Bog IX. Kong Gorms Saga]</ref><ref>''Indvandrerne i Danmarks historie'', Bent Østergaard, Syddansk Universitetsforlag 2007, ISBN 978-87-7674-204-1, pp. 19–24</ref> This is centered primarily around the prefix ''"Dan"'' and whether it refers to the [[Danes (Germanic tribe)|Dani]] or a historical person [[Dan (king)|Dan]] and the exact meaning of the -''"mark"'' ending. The issue is further complicated by a number of references to various Dani people in Scandinavia or other places in Europe in [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] and [[Ancient Rome|Roman]] accounts (like [[Ptolemy]], [[Jordanes]], and [[Gregory of Tours]]), as well as [[mediaeval literature]] (like [[Adam of Bremen]], [[Beowulf]], [[Widsith]] and [[Poetic Edda]]).
   
The Penguinists argue that the vocabulary and phonemes of [[Danish]] much resemble Penguinese, and that the [[Penguin|Penguins]] obviously have a much superior culture and language, much more likely to be copied from. However likely, many argue against it because the contact between these two groups have arguably been non-existent in the relevant time period, the Penguins residing only in the southern hemisphere in present times.
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Most handbooks derive<ref>[[Jan de Vries (linguist)|J. de Vries]], ''Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch'', 1962, 73; [[:da:Niels Åge Nielsen|N. Å. Nielsen]], ''Dansk etymologisk ordbog'', 1989, 85–96.</ref> the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German ''Tenne'' "threshing floor", English ''den'' "cave", [[Sanskrit]] ''dhánuṣ-'' (धनुस्; "desert"). The ''-mark'' is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see [[march (territory)|marches]]), with probable references to the border forests in south [[Duchy of Schleswig|Schleswig]],<ref>Navneforskning, Københavns Universitet [http://web.archive.org/web/20060716144406/http://navneforskning.ku.dk/stednavne.doc/betydninger.doc Udvalgte stednavnes betydning].</ref>
   
[[phrenology|Phrenologists]] who study the Danish language have come to the conclusion that it is not so much a language as a throat [[disease]], probably caused by a mutated form of the same virus that causes [[Swedish]], which itself is a mutated form of the [[Troll|Trollish]]/[[Dwarf|Dwarven]] virus. The cause of the Danish mutation is thought to be due to a rampant [[allele]] which became manifest due to excessive contact with fatty [[cheese]] and old beer.
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The first recorded use of the word ''Danmark'' within Denmark itself is found on the two [[Jelling stones]], which are [[runestone]]s believed to have been erected by [[Gorm the Old]] (c. 955) and [[Harald I of Denmark|Harald Bluetooth]] (c. 965). The larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's baptismal certificate (''dåbsattest''), though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of [[accusative case|accusative]] {{runic|ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ}} "tanmaurk" ({{IPA|[danmɒrk]}}) on the large stone, and [[genitive case|genitive]] "tanmarkar" (pronounced {{IPA|[danmarkaɽ]}}) on the small stone.<ref>The [[dative case|dative]] form ''tąnmarku'' (pronounced {{IPA|[danmarkʊ]}}) is found on the contemporaneous Skivum stone.</ref> The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "tani" ({{IPA|[danɪ]}}), or "Danes", in the accusative.
   
The latest research puts forward the theory that the Danish language was created by drunk [[Norwegians]] Vikings, that having been drunk, got lost and ended up in Denmark. This theory has also argued that Danish is in fact a long-running situationist joke and not really a language at all, more a sort of attenuated collection of grunts and base howls. However, as the Danes are fond of saying, "at least y comes from the fact that Danes can understand drunk Norwegians, but not sober ones (nor drunk Swedish people, only sober ones). Controversially, linguist [[David it is not [[Finnish]]".
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==History==
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{{Main|History of Denmark}}
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{{See also|History of Greenland|History of the Faroe Islands}}
   
It should be noted the Swedish theory on Danish language, that is sounds like throwing up, is not even admitted by the Danes. The Swedes think this is an obvious case of alcoholics denial of truth. Though the Danes believe the Swedes are just not drunk ''enough'' to see the epicness of the Danish language.
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===Prehistory===
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The earliest [[Archaeology of Denmark|archaeological findings in Denmark]] date back to the [[Eemian|Eem interglacial period]] from 130,000–110,000 BC.<ref>Michaelsen (2002), p. 19.</ref> Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC.<ref name="foreign ministry">{{cite web|last=Nielsen|first=Poul Otto|month=May |year=2003|url=http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/UM/English/Denmark/kap6/6-1.asp|title=Denmark: History, Prehistory|publisher=Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs|accessdate=1 May 2006 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20051122020555/http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/UM/English/Denmark/kap6/6-1.asp |archivedate=22 November 2005}}</ref> The [[Nordic Bronze Age]] (1800–600 BC) in Denmark was marked by [[Tumulus|burial mounds]], which left an abundance of findings including [[lur]]s and the [[Trundholm sun chariot|Sun Chariot]].
   
== Danish Mentality ==
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During the [[Pre-Roman Iron Age]] (500 BC&nbsp; – 1 AD), native groups began migrating south, although<ref name="foreign ministry"/> the first Danish people came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the [[Germanic Iron Age]],<ref>Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 20.</ref> in the [[Roman Iron Age]] (1–400 AD). The [[Roman province]]s maintained [[trade route]]s and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and [[Roman currency|Roman coins]] have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the [[Gundestrup cauldron]].
[[File:claphat.jpg|thumb|200px|All Danish politicians are obliged to wear the mythical "claphat" during their sessions. It was invented to prevent applauses from drunk right-wing politicians]]
 
The Danish mentality is famous the world over. Success is frowned upon; as is being different or just standing out from the herd, but they excel at racism, lying, cheating, drinking, and producing bacon.
 
   
Some Danes enjoy harassing other ethnic groups, especially Muslims, but any minority will do, and even Eastern Europeans have been known to be subjected to quite serious accusations of criminality in Denmark, even though the evidence suggests that Danes themselves are the most ardent criminals.
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[[File:Trundholm.jpg|thumb|left|The gilded side of the [[Trundholm sun chariot]]]]
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Historians believe that before the arrival of the precursors to the Danes, who came from the east [[List of islands of Denmark|Danish islands]] ([[Zealand (Denmark)|Zealand]]) and [[Scania|Skåne]] and spoke an early form of [[North Germanic languages|North Germanic]], most of [[Jutland]] and the nearest islands were settled by [[Jutes]]. They were later invited to Great Britain as mercenaries by [[Brythonic languages|Brythonic]] King [[Vortigern]] and were granted the southeastern territories of [[Kent]], the [[Isle of Wight]] among other areas, where they settled. They were later absorbed or [[ethnic cleansing|ethnically cleansed]] by the invading [[Angles]] and [[Saxons]], who formed the [[Anglo-Saxons]]. The remaining population in Jutland assimilated in with the [[Danes (Germanic tribe)|Danes]].
   
In general, Danes don't have a lot of trouble on their minds. As long as there is beer, bitches and Horn(y)music, there is no problem. When one of these things run out, they always blame a minority. There's a few minorities often blamed by Danes. Here is a few examples:
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A short note<ref>{{cite web|author=Jordanes|coauthors=translated by [[Charles C. Mierow]]|date=22 April 1997|url=http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html#III |title=The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, chapter III|accessdate=1 May 2006}}</ref> about the ''Dani'' in "[[Getica]]" by historian [[Jordanes]] is believed by some{{Who|date=June 2012}} to be an early mention of the Danes,<ref>Busck and Poulsen (ed.) (2002), p. 19.</ref> one of the [[ethnic group]]s from whom the modern [[Danes|Danish people]] are descended. The [[Danevirke]] defence structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward,<ref name="danevirke">Michaelsen (2002), pp. 122–23.</ref> and the sheer size of the construction efforts in 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.<ref name="danevirke"/> The [[Younger Futhark|new runic alphabet]] was first used around the same time, and [[Ribe]], the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about 700.
   
'''Eastern Europeans:''' Often accused of stealing the beer and then drive home in a bus. A certain country is blamed for all the black labour. (not nigger slaves as they are sold to another country, but work were they dont pay taxes) The poles. Therefore poles are always hated by masons and carpenters, whether they are drunk or not!
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===Middle Ages===
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{{Main|Viking Age|Kalmar Union}}
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[[File:Ladbyskibet.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Ladby ship]], the largest ship burial found in Denmark]]
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From the 8th to the 10th century, the [[Danish people|Danes]] were known as [[Vikings]]. Together with [[Norwegians]] and [[Swedes]], they colonised, raided and traded in all parts of Europe. Viking explorers first discovered [[Iceland]] by accident in the 9th century, on the way towards the [[Faroe Islands]] and eventually came across "[[Vinland]]" (Land of wine) also known today as [[Newfoundland (island)|Newfoundland]], in [[Canada]]. The Danish Vikings were most active in the [[British Isles]] and [[Western Europe]]. They temporarily conquered and settled parts of [[England]] (known as the [[Danelaw]]), [[Ireland]] and [[France]] where they founded [[Normandy]]. More [[Anglo-Saxons|Anglo-Saxon]] [[pence]] of this period have been found in Denmark than in England. As attested by the [[Jelling stones]], the Danes were united and [[Christianised]] about 965 by [[Harald Bluetooth]]. It is believed that Denmark became Christian for political reasons so as not to get invaded by the rising [[Holy Roman Empire|Christian power]] in Europe, [[Germania]], which was an important trading area for the Danes. In that case Harald built six [[fortresses]] around Denmark called [[Viking ring fortress|Trelleborg]] and built a further [[Danevirke]]. In the early 11th century [[Canute the Great]] won and united Denmark, England and Norway for almost 30 years.<ref>* {{cite web| last =Lund| first =Niels| date =May 2003| url =http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/UM/English/Denmark/kap6/6-2.asp| archiveurl =http://web.archive.org/web/20060510174200/http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/UM/English/Denmark/kap6/6-2.asp| archivedate =10 May 2006| title =Denmark – History – The Viking Age| work =Denmark| publisher =Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs| accessdate =1 May 2006| accessdate =24 June 2012 }}
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* [http://www.tacitus.nu/historical-atlas/scandinavia/denmark.htm Historical Atlas of Denmark]</ref>
   
'''Muslims:''' Because of Pia Kjærsgaards nazi politics Muslims are being blamed for everything. Stealin' our beer, kidnapping our women to Afghan-land and breeding like rabbits.
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Throughout the [[High Middle Ages|High]] and [[Late Middle Ages]], Denmark also included [[Skåneland]] ([[Skåne]], [[Halland]] and [[Blekinge]]) and Danish kings ruled [[Danish Estonia]], as well as the [[duchy|duchies]] of [[Schleswig]] and [[Holstein]]. Most of the latter two now form the state of [[Schleswig-Holstein]] in northern [[Germany]].
   
'''Greenlanders:''' People from Greenland, though part of the Danish Kingdom, are often frowned upon by the rest of the Danes (the danes who are even aware they exist, that is). Being called 'Ice nigga' and 'drunken bastards' they have earned themselves as the danes favourite enemy.
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In 1397, Denmark entered into a [[personal union]] with [[Norway]] and [[Sweden-Finland|Sweden]], united under Queen [[Margaret I of Denmark|Margaret I]]. The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. However, even from the start Margaret may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark as the clear "senior" partner of the union.<ref name="Lauring">Palle Lauring, ''A History of the Kingdom of Denmark'' (Host & Son Co.: Copenhagen, 1960) p. 108.</ref> Thus, much of the next 125 years of [[History of Scandinavia|Scandinavian history]] revolves around this union, with Sweden breaking off and being re-conquered repeatedly. The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as [[List of Swedish monarchs|Swedish King]] [[Gustav I of Sweden|Gustav Vasa]] conquered the city of [[Stockholm]].
   
== Fauna ==
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The [[Protestant Reformation]] came to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and following the [[Count's Feud]] civil war, Denmark converted to [[Lutheranism]] in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a [[Denmark-Norway|union with Norway]].
   
The hardiness of the [[Danish]] people is by no doubt due to the large amount of vicious wild animals constantly being preyed on by such vicious people intent on invading [[England]]. This <s>wasteland</s> country is also a home of the common human subspecies, ''Humanus Intoxicus Incrediblus'', the Very Drunk Man and its female counterpart ''Puella basianda'', the Smooching Girl.
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=== Early modern history ===
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{{main|Denmark–Norway}}
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[[File:Slaget ved oland maleri av claus moinichen 1686.jpg|thumb|[[Battle of Öland]] between an allied [[Denmark–Norway|Dano-Norwegian]]-[[Dutch Republic|Dutch]] fleet and the Swedish navy, 1 June 1676.]]
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After Sweden permanently broke away from the Kalmar Union in 1523, Denmark tried on two occasions to reassert control over Sweden. The first was in the [[Northern Seven Years War]] which lasted from 1563 until 1570. The second occasion was the [[Kalmar War]] when King [[Christian IV of Denmark|Christian IV]] attacked Sweden in 1611 but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing Sweden to return to the union with Denmark. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a [[war reparations|war indemnity]] of 1&nbsp;million silver [[Swedish riksdaler|riksdaler]] to Denmark, an amount known as the ''[[Treaty of Stettin (1570)|Älvsborg ransom]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.smb.nu/svenskakrig/1611.asp|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071011111014/http://smb.nu/svenskakrig/1611.asp|archivedate=11 October 2007 |title=Kalmarkriget 1611–1613 |accessdate=4 May 2007 |publisher=Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek}}</ref>
   
Another very commonly seen animal in Denmark is the Polar watch bear (called Wizzies). But be aware: tourists are prohibited from feeding these animals, as they often get in the way of them, thus causing bad [[foraging]] and a lousy temper because of vomiting.
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King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably [[Glückstadt]] (founded as a rival to [[Hamburg]]), [[Oslo|Christiania]] (following a fire destroying the original city of [[Oslo]]), [[Christianshavn]], [[Kristianstad|Christianstad]] and [[Kristiansand|Christiansand]]. Christian also constructed a number of buildings, most notably [[Børsen]], [[Rundetårn]], [[Nyboder]], [[Rosenborg Castle|Rosenborg]], a [[Kongsberg|silver mine]] and a [[Kupfermühle|copper mill]].<!--less important were Christianspris (near Kiel) and Christianopel (near Brømsebro in Blekinge) --> Inspired by the [[Dutch East India Company]], he founded a similar [[Danish East India Company|Danish company]] and planned to claim [[Sri Lanka|Ceylon]] as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire [[Tharangambadi|Tranquebar]] on [[India]]'s [[Coromandel Coast]]. Denmark's large [[Danish colonial empire|colonial aspirations]] were limited to a few key [[trading posts]] in Africa and India.
   
The [[Devil sheep]] used to live in the Frodo mountains of Denmark. Until it was wiped out by the [[Beowulf]] in the star-year of log 215.352c after the Two Muslims war, on a command of the Big Kingfisher of Denmark, Uffe Elle-Bälle-mand, who used to be a former wanna-be editor of the NATO warlord magazine.
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In the [[Thirty Years' War]], Christian tried to become the leader of the [[Lutheranism|Lutheran]] [[States of Germany|states in Germany]] but suffered a crushing defeat at the [[Battle of Lutter]].<ref>Parker, pp. 69–70.</ref> The result was that the Catholic army under [[Albrecht von Wallenstein]] was able to invade, occupy and pillage Jutland,<ref>Parker, p. 70.</ref> forcing Denmark [[Treaty of Lübeck|to withdraw from the war]]. Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions, but [[Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden|Gustavus Adolphus]]' intervention in Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining. Swedish armies [[Torstenson War|invaded Jutland]] in 1643 and claimed Skåne in 1644. According to [[Geoffrey Parker (historian)|Geoffrey Parker]], "The Swedish occupation caused a drop in agricultural production and a shortage of capital; harvest failure and [[Black Death|plague]] ravaged the land between 1647 and 1651; Denmark's population fell by 20 per cent."<ref>Geoffrey Parker (2001). "''Europe in crisis, 1598–1648''". Wiley-Blackwell. p.205. ISBN 0-631-22028-3</ref>
   
Denmark is also full of pink elephants and female rhinos (called Nørrebro Stonehenges), however it's normally drunken Swedish or Norwegian tourists that come in contact with these animals.
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In the 1645 [[Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645)|Treaty of Brømsebro]], Denmark surrendered Halland, [[Gotland]], the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway. In 1657, king [[Frederick III of Denmark|Frederick III]] declared war on Sweden and marched on [[Bremen-Verden]]. This led to a massive Danish defeat and the armies of King [[Charles X Gustav]] of Sweden conquered both [[Jutland]], [[Funen]] and much of [[Zealand]] before signing the [[Treaty of Roskilde|Peace of Roskilde]] in February 1658 which gave Sweden control of [[Skåne]], [[Blekinge]], [[Trøndelag]] and the island of [[Bornholm]]. Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having destroyed Denmark completely and in August 1658 he began a two-year long siege of [[Copenhagen]] but failed to take the capital. In the following peace settlement, Denmark managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.
   
== Denmark in Literature ==
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Denmark tried to regain control of Skåne in the [[Scanian War]] (1675–79) but this attempt was a failure. Following the [[Great Northern War]] (1700–21), Denmark managed to restore control of the parts of [[Schleswig]] and [[Holstein]] ruled by the house of [[Holstein-Gottorp]] in 1721 and 1773, respectively. In the [[Napoleonic Wars]], Denmark originally tried to pursue a policy of neutrality and trade with both [[First French Empire|France]] and the [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|United Kingdom]] and joined the [[Second League of Armed Neutrality|League of Armed Neutrality]] with [[Russian Empire|Russia]], Sweden and [[Kingdom of Prussia|Prussia]]. The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen in both [[Battle of Copenhagen (1801)|1801]] and [[Battle of Copenhagen (1807)|1807]], in one case carrying off the [[Royal Danish Navy|Danish fleet]], in the other, burning large parts of the Danish capital. This led to the so-called Danish-British [[Gunboat War]], but the British control of the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813, Denmark-Norway went [[bankruptcy|bankrupt]]. The Danish-Norwegian union was dissolved by the [[Treaty of Kiel]] in 1814. Norway entered a new union with Sweden which lasted until 1905. Denmark kept the colonies of [[Iceland]], [[Faroe Islands]] and [[Greenland]]. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over [[Danish India]] ([[Tranquebar]] in [[India]]) from 1620 to 1869, the [[Danish Gold Coast]] ([[Ghana]]) from 1658 to 1850, and the [[Danish West Indies]] (the [[United States Virgin Islands|U.S. Virgin Islands]]) from 1671 to 1917.
   
Denmark is featured most prominently in two major works of [[English]] literature, although not so prominently in any works of Danish literature (more on this later*).
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===Constitutional monarchy===
The first of these is [[Beowulf]], an epic poem written several hundred years after the fact by some guy in [[England]] with way too much time on his hands.
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[[File:Grundlovgivende rigsforsamling - Constantin Hansen.jpg|thumb|left|''Den Grundlovsgivende Rigsforsamling'' (The founding fathers of the [[Constitution of Denmark|Danish constitution]]), 1860–1864 painting by [[Constantin Hansen]].]]
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The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European [[Revolutions of 1848]] Denmark peacefully became a [[constitutional monarchy]] on 5 June 1849. A two-chamber parliament was established. After the [[Second Schleswig War|Second War of Schleswig]] in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede [[Province of Schleswig-Holstein|Schleswig and Holstein]] to [[Prussia]], in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity.{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} After these events, Denmark pursued a policy of neutrality in Europe.
   
The second piece of literature is [[Hamlet]], his tale was soon discovered by [[Shakespeare]], who liked the overall [[emo]]-traits. Hamlet thinks he sees his dad's ghost telling him about his uncle being a murderer. Although your English teachers will undoubtedly try to tell you that all of Hamlet's problems arose because he listened to the ghost and slowly drove himself mad, do not be fooled. Hamlet simply had a terrible case of depression from the awful weather and it drove his mind to create its own reality. Since Hamlet the Danes have become better at dealing with their weather related depression, resorting back to Beowulf-esque amounts of [[alcohol]] and brainwashing each other into believing that they live in the happiest country on earth.
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Denmark remained neutral during World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the [[Treaty of Versailles|Versailles powers]] offered to return the region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German [[irredentism]], Denmark refused to consider the return of the area without a [[plebiscite]]. The two [[Schleswig Plebiscites]] took place on 10 February and 14 March, respectively. On 10 July 1920, Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding 163,600 inhabitants and 3,984&nbsp;km². The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every year 15 June on Valdemarsdag.
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[[File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|Denmark became a member of the [[European Union]] in 1973 and signed the [[Lisbon Treaty]] in 2007.]]
   
'Out of Africa' by Karen Blixen (published under the name Isak Dineson for fear of persecution by the [[Jantelov]] and the work of Danish philosopher Søren Kirkegaard. 'Out of Africa' provides a lovely example of the lengths some people will go to to get away from the Danish weather.
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Denmark signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany in 1939. [[Germany]]'s [[invasion]] of Denmark on 9 April 1940&nbsp; code named [[Operation Weserübung]]&nbsp; met only two hours of military resistance before the Danish government surrendered. Economic co-operation between Germany and Denmark continued until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and [[Royal Danish Navy|its navy]] sank most of its ships and sent as many of their officers as they could to Sweden. During the war, the government was helpful towards the Danish Jewish minority, and the Danish resistance performed a [[Rescue of the Danish Jews|rescue operation]] that managed to get most of them to Sweden and safety shortly before the Germans planned to round up the Danish Jews. Denmark led many "inside operations" or sabotage against the German facilities.{{Citation needed|date=January 2013}} Danish doctors refused to treat German citizens fleeing from Germany, which resulted in the deaths of 13,000 people.<ref>Manfred Ertel. [http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,355772,00.html A Legacy of Dead German Children] Spiegel Online, 16 May 2005</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Lindbjerg|first=Søren|title=IMDB - Kun en tysker|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0351197/|accessdate=30 January 2013}}</ref> Danish citizens volunteered to fight Russia in cooperation with Germany as part of [[Frikorps Danmark]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Rugg|first=Andy|title=Traitor Danes: most soldiers return heroes, but this lot came home total zeroes|url=http://cphpost.dk/culture/through-looking-glass/traitor-danes-most-soldiers-return-heroes-lot-came-home-total-zeroes|publisher=Cophenagen Post|accessdate=30 January 2013}}</ref> [[Iceland]] severed ties to Denmark and became an independent republic in 1944, and in 1948, the [[Faroe Islands]] gained [[home rule]].
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Constitutional change in 1953 led to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Danish throne and Greenland becoming an integral part of Denmark. The [[Social Democrats (Denmark)]] led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century in a country generally known for its liberal traditions. [[Poul Schluter]] then became the first Danish prime minister from the [[Conservative People's Party (Denmark)]] in 1982, leading a centre-right coalition until 1993, when he was succeeded by the Social Democrat [[Poul Nyrup Rasmussen]]. A new centre-right coalition headed by [[Anders Fogh Rasmussen]] came to power in 2001 promising tighter immigration controls. A third successive centre-right leader, [[Lars Løkke Rasmussen]], was prime minister from 2009 to 2011. His government, dependent as it was on the right-wing populist People's Party to push through legislation, witnessed immigration and integration emerge as major issues of public debate. Social Democrat [[Helle Thorning-Schmidt]], Denmark's first female prime minister, took office in 2011, ending a decade of centre-right rule.
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After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of the [[United Nations]] and [[NATO]], and in 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, joined the [[European Economic Community]] after a [[Danish European Communities membership referendum, 1972|public referendum]]. The [[Maastricht treaty]] involving further European integration was rejected by the Danish people in 1992. It was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993 and the addition of certain opt-out concessions for Denmark. The Danes rejected the euro as the national currency in a referendum in September 2000. [[Greenland]] gained [[home rule]] in 1979 and was awarded [[self-determination]] in 2009. Neither Greenland nor the Faroe Islands are members of the European Union, the Faroese declined membership of the EEC in 1973 and Greenland in 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.
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Despite its modest size, since World War II, Denmark has participated in generally UN sanctioned, and often NATO led, military and humanitarian operations, including: [[Cyprus dispute|Cyprus]], [[Bosnian War|Bosnia and Herzegovina]], [[Korean War|Korea]], [[Suez Crisis|Egypt]], [[Croatian War of Independence|Croatia]], [[Kosovo War|Kosovo]], Ethiopia, [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Afghanistan]], Iraq, [[Somali Civil War|Somalia]] and recently Libya. In 2009 [[Anders Fogh Rasmussen]] resigned as Prime Minister of Denmark to become the Secretary General of NATO.
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==Geography==
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{{Main|Geography of Denmark}}
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[[File:Da-map.png|thumb|Map of Denmark.]]
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[[File:Satellite image of Denmark in July 2001.jpg|thumb|A satellite image of metropolitan Denmark.]]
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Located in [[Northern Europe]], Denmark consists of the [[List of peninsulas|peninsula]] of [[Jutland]] and 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100&nbsp;m² in total).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.kms.dk/C1256AED004EA666/(AllDocsByDocId)/1D7EE8822587E667C1256AEF0030ABF6?open&page=strste&omr=KORT_DK_I_TAL |title=Landet i tal&nbsp; – Største øer |accessdate=14 July 2007 |date=23 September 2003 |publisher=[[National Survey and Cadastre of Denmark]]}}</ref> Of these, 72 are inhabited,<ref>Statistikbanken.dk/bef4</ref> with the largest being [[Zealand (Denmark)|Zealand]] and [[Funen]]. The island of [[Bornholm]] is located east of the rest of the country, in the [[Baltic Sea]]. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the [[Øresund Bridge]] connects Zealand with Sweden; the [[Great Belt Fixed Link|Great Belt Bridge]] connects Funen with Zealand; and the [[Little Belt Bridge (1970)|Little Belt Bridge]] connects Jutland with Funen. [[Ferry|Ferries]] or [[small aircraft]] connect to the smaller islands. The largest cities with populations over 100,000 are the capital [[Copenhagen]] on Zealand; [[Aarhus|Århus]] and [[Aalborg]] in Jutland; and [[Odense]] on Funen.
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Denmark occupies an area of {{convert|43,094|km2|sqmi|lk=in|sigfig=7}}.<ref name="mundi">[http://www.indexmundi.com/denmark/area.html Denmark Area] – Geography – Index Mundi. Retrieved 5 June 2012.</ref><ref name="factbook">{{cite web|date=19 January 2012|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/da.html|title=Denmark|work=The World Factbook|publisher=CIA|accessdate=4 February 2012}}</ref> The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human [[land reclamation]] projects (to counter erosion). It shares a border of 68 kilometres with Germany to the south and is otherwise surrounded by {{convert|7314|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} of tidal [[shoreline]] (including small [[bay]]s and [[inlet]]s).<ref name="Nature and Environment">{{cite web|url=http://denmark.dk/portal/page?_pageid=374,520337&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070403235436/http://denmark.dk/portal/page?_pageid=374,520337&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL|archivedate=3 April 2007 |title=Nature & Environment |accessdate=3 February 2007 |work=Denmark.dk}}</ref> No location in Denmark is further from the coast than {{convert|52|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between {{convert|1|and|2|m|ft|2|abbr=on}}, and the tideline moves outward and inward on a {{convert|10|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} stretch.<ref>Nationalencyklopedin, (1990)</ref>
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Denmark's northernmost point is [[Skagen]]s point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is [[Gedser]] point (the southern tip of [[Falster]]) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is [[Blåvandshuk]] at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is [[Østerskær]] at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago [[Ertholmene]] 18&nbsp;kilometres northeast of [[Bornholm]]. The distance from east to west is {{convert|452|km|mi|0}}, from north to south {{convert|368|km|mi|0}}.
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The country is flat with little elevation; having an average height [[above mean sea level|above sea level]] of {{convert|31|m|ft|0}}. The highest natural point is [[Møllehøj]], at {{convert|170.86|m|ft|2}}. The area of inland water is {{convert|700|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}.
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[[Phytogeography|Phytogeographically]], the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands) belongs to the [[Boreal Kingdom]] and is shared between the [[Arctic]], Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the [[Circumboreal Region]]. According to the [[World Wide Fund for Nature]], the territory of Denmark can be subdivided into two [[ecoregion]]s: the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests. The Faroe Islands are covered by the Faroe Islands boreal grasslands, while Greenland hosts the ecoregions of Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra and Kalaallit Nunaat low arctic tundra.
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===Climate===
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Denmark has a [[Temperateness|temperate]] climate, characterised by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January and February of {{convert|0.0|°C|°F|1}}, and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of {{convert|15.7|°C|°F|1}}.<ref name="Denmark climate">{{cite web |url=http://www.dmi.dk/dmi/index/danmark/oversigter/klimanormaler.htm |title=Climate Normals for Denmark |accessdate=28 October 2008 |work=[[Danish Meteorological Institute]]}} Figures, labeled in Danish: First plot is the whole country; Nedbør=Precipitation, Nedbørdage=Precipitation days (>1 mm), (Dag/Middel/Nat)temp.=(Daytime/Average/Nighttime) temperature, Solskinstimer=Hours of sunshine.</ref> Denmark has an average of 121 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of {{convert|712|mm|in|0}} per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest.<ref name="Denmark climate"/>
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Because of Denmark's northern location, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8:45&nbsp;am and sunset 3:45&nbsp;pm, as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:30&nbsp;am and sunset at 10&nbsp;pm.<ref name="sunrise sunset">{{cite web|url=http://www.gaisma.com/en/location/kobenhavn.html|title=Copenhagen, Denmark&nbsp; – Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year|work=Gaisma|accessdate=2 May 2006|accessdate=24 June 2012}}</ref>
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===Environment===
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{{multiple image
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|align=right
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|direction=vertical
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|image1=Baltic sea coast of skagen.JPG
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|caption1=The Danish landscape is characterised by flat, [[arable land]] and sandy coasts.
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|image2=Grib skov.jpg
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|caption2=[[Fagus sylvatica|Beech trees]] are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.
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|image3=Vor Frelsers Kirke-view10.jpg
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|caption3=Much of Denmark is highly [[urbanised]], such as [[Copenhagen]], the capital city.
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}}
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Denmark has historically taken a progressive stance on [[environmental preservation]]; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an [[environmental law]] in 1973.<ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=NHxwtVy9MKMC&pg=PA323&lpg=PA323&dq=denmark+1973+environmental+laws&source=bl&ots=4Ev_AGmjqf&sig=4Ff7Qdae-i-6V1RTPjelOWwGuNE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8StdT9aeJtDZ8QOayLSKDw&ved=0CF0Q6AEwCA The law of environmental damage: liability and reparation]. Marie-Louise Larsson.</ref> To mitigate environmental degradation and [[global warming]] the Danish Government has signed the following international agreements: Antarctic Treaty; [[Kyoto Protocol|Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol]]; [[Endangered Species Act]]<ref name="factbook" />
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Copenhagen is the spearhead of the [[bright green environmentalism|bright green]] [[environmental movement]] in Denmark<ref>[http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f12sS0_touYC "The clean tech revolution"]. Ron Pernick, Clint Wilder. Pg. 265.</ref> Copenhagen's most important environment research institutions are the [[University of Copenhagen]], [[Copenhagen Business School]],<ref>{{cite web |title=The win-win ways of Cleantech business |publisher=CBS Observer |date=26 March 2009 |url=http://cbsobserver.dk/win-win-ways-cleantech-business |accessdate=24 July 2009}}</ref> [[Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy]] and the [[Technical University of Denmark]], which Risø is now part of. Leading up to the [[2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference]] (Copenhagen Summit), the University of Copenhagen held the [[Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions]] conference where the need for comprehensive action to mitigate [[climate change]] was stressed by the international [[scientific community]]. Notable figures such as [[Rajendra K. Pachauri]], Chairman of the IPCC, Professor [[Nicholas Stern, Baron Stern of Brentford|Nicholas Stern]], author of the [[Stern Review|Stern Report]] and Professor [[Daniel Kammen]] all emphasised the good example set by Copenhagen and Denmark in capitalising on cleantech and achieving economic growth while stabilising [[Greenhouse gas|carbon emissions]].
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Denmark's green house gas emissions per dollar of value produced has been for the most part unstable since 1990, seeing sudden growths and falls. Overall though, there has been a reduction in gas emissions per dollar value added to its market.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www02.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=denmark+green+house+gas+emission+per+denmark+gdp |title=Denmark – Wolfram Alpha |publisher=2.wolframalpha.com |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref> It lags behind other Scandinavian countries such as Norway<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www03.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=norway+green+house+gas+emission+per+norway+GDP |title=Norway – Wolfram Alpha |publisher=3.wolframalpha.com |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref> and Sweden.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www03.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Sweden+green+house+gas+emission+per+Sweden+GDP |title=Sweden – Wolfram Alpha |publisher=3.wolframalpha.com |accessdate=8 July 2009}}</ref>
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==Governance==
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{{Main|Politics of Denmark}}
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[[File:Queen Magrethe sep 7 2005.png|thumb|right|upright|Queen [[Margrethe II of Denmark]].]]
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The Kingdom of Denmark is a [[constitutional monarchy]], in which Queen [[Margrethe II of Denmark|Margrethe II]] is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to ceremonial functions.<ref>[http://kongehuset.dk/english/the-monarchy-in-denmark/the-monarchy-today The Monarchy today] – ''The Danish Monarchy'' (kongehuset.dk). Access date: 16 June 2012</ref> The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct.<ref>"The King shall not be answerable for his actions; his person shall be sacrosanct." [http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html The Constitution of Denmark – Section 13.]</ref> The Danish political system operates under a framework laid out in the [[Constitution of Denmark]]. Changes to it require an absolute majority in two consecutive parliamentary terms and majority approval through a referendum (and the referendum majority constitutes at least 40 per cent of the electorate).<ref>{{cite web|author=Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher, LL.M. |url=http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html |title=The Constitution of Denmark – Section 88 |publisher=Servat.unibe.ch |date= |accessdate=5 July 2012}}</ref> The Constitution lays out a political system based on the separation of powers into the three branches of government; the legislative, the executive and the judiciary branches.
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===Political system===
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[[File:Kbh IMG 6504.JPG|thumb|left|[[Christiansborg Palace]], where the [[Folketing|parliament]] and the [[Courts of Denmark|courts]] meet.]]
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The [[Folketing]] is the national [[parliament]], the supreme [[legislative body]] of the kingdom. In theory it has the ultimate legislative authority according to the doctrine of [[parliamentary sovereignty]], it is able to legislate on any matter and not bound by decisions of its predecessors. However questions over sovereignty have been brought forward because of Denmark's entry into the [[European Union]]. Parliament consists of 175 members elected by proportional majority, plus two members each from Greenland and the Faroe Islands.<ref>{{harvnb|Jørgensen|1995|p=16.}}</ref> Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the prime minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a [[Motion of no confidence|vote of no confidence]], the parliament may force a single minister or the entire government to resign.<ref>"A Minister shall not remain in office after the Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence in him." [http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html The Constitution of Denmark – Section 15.]</ref>
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The Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most Danish post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.b.dk/din-mening/radikale-ved-historisk-skillevej|title=Radikale ved historisk skillevej|publisher=[[Berlingske Tidende]]|date=17 June 2007|accessdate=17 August 2007}}</ref>
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[[File:Helle Thorning-Schmidt-2.jpg|thumb|upright|The [[Prime Minister of Denmark]], [[Helle Thorning-Schmidt]].]]
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The [[Prime Minister of Denmark|prime minister]] is formally appointed by the monarch, on the advice of party leaders following an election or collapse of a government. In practice the prime minister is chosen through negotiation between the parliament party leaders, customarily with the leader of the largest party in a coalition being appointed. Executive authority is exercised on behalf of the monarch by the prime minister and other [[Cabinet of Helle Thorning-Schmidt|cabinet ministers]] who head [[List of Danish government ministries, past and present|departments]]. The cabinet, prime minister and other ministers collectively make up the government of Denmark.
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[[Lars Løkke Rasmussen]] was the prime minister from April 2009 until September 2011. He headed a right-wing government coalition consisting of [[Venstre (Denmark)|Venstre]] (a [[Conservative liberalism|conservative liberal]] party) and the [[Conservative People's Party (Denmark)|Conservative People's Party]], with parliamentary support from the national-conservative [[Danish People's Party]]. Following the [[Danish parliamentary election, 2011|September 2011 election]] the right wing lost by a small margin to the opposing left-wing coalition, led by [[Helle Thorning-Schmidt]] who on 3 October 2011 formed a [[Cabinet of Helle Thorning-Schmidt|new government]] consisting of the [[Social Democrats (Denmark)|Social Democrats]], the [[Danish Social Liberal Party]] and the [[Socialist People's Party (Denmark)|Socialist People's Party]]. Helle Thorning-Schmidt became the first female prime minister in Denmark.
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===Judicial system===
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{{Main|Courts of Denmark}}
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Judicial authority remains separate from the executive and legislature and lies with the [[Courts of Denmark|courts of justice]]. The Kingdom of Denmark does not have a single unified judicial system – Denmark proper has one system, Greenland another, and the Faroe Islands a third.<ref>{{harvnb|Gammelgaard|Sørensen|1998|p=18.}}</ref> However, decisions by the highest courts in Greenland and the Faroe Islands may be appealed to the Danish High Courts. The [[Supreme Court of Denmark|Danish Supreme Court]] is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in the kingdom.
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Articles 62 and 64 of the [[Danish Constitution]] ensure [[judicial independence]] from Government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes and practice.<ref>"The administration of justice shall always remain independent of the executive power. Rules to this effect shall be laid down by Statute..." [http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html The Constitution of Denmark – Sections/Articles 62 and 64.]</ref>
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===Foreign relations and military===
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{{Further|Foreign relations of Denmark|Danish Defence|Military history of Denmark}}
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Danish foreign policy is based on its identity as a sovereign nation in Europe. As such its primary foreign policy focus is on its relations with other nations as a sovereign independent nation. Denmark has long had good relations with other nations. It has been involved in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states ([[Estonia]],<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ambtallinn.um.dk/en/menu/TheEmbassy/DanishEstonianDefenceCooperation/DanishEstonianDefenceCooperation.htm|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20090309101430/http://www.ambtallinn.um.dk/en/menu/TheEmbassy/DanishEstonianDefenceCooperation/DanishEstonianDefenceCooperation.htm|archivedate=9 March 2009|title=Danish – Estonian Defence Cooperation|author=Danish embassy in Tallinn, Estonia|accessdate=22 February 2011}}</ref> [[Latvia]], and [[Lithuania]]).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://litauen.um.dk/en/about-us/defence/newsletters/newsdisplaypage/?newsid=00f13429-6dd9-484e-9646-4aa73b9040ba |title=Danish – Latvian Defence Cooperation|author=Danish embassy in Riga, Latvia|accessdate=8 June 2012}}</ref>
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Following [[World War II]], Denmark ended its two-hundred-year policy of neutrality. Denmark has been a member of [[NATO]] since its founding in 1949, and membership in NATO remains highly popular.<ref name="stategov">{{cite web |url= http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3167.htm|title= US Department of State: Denmark|author= Government of the United States|accessdate=16 June 2012}}</ref> There were several serious confrontations between the U.S. and Denmark on security policy in the so-called "footnote era" (1982–88), when an alternative parliamentary majority forced the government to adopt specific national positions on nuclear and arms control issues.<ref name="stategov"/> With the end of the [[Cold War]], however, Denmark has been supportive of U.S. policy objectives in the Alliance.
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[[File:Danish Military Police.JPG|thumb|left|Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training.]]
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Denmark's armed forces are known as the [[Danish Defence]] ({{lang-da|Forsvaret}}). During peacetime, the [[Ministry of Defence (Denmark)|Ministry of Defence in Denmark]] employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the [[Danish Army|Royal Danish Army]], 5,300 in the [[Royal Danish Navy]] and 6,050 in the [[Royal Danish Air Force]] (all including conscripts).
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The [[Danish Emergency Management Agency]] ({{lang|da|''Beredskabsstyrelsen''}}) employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the [[Defence Command (Denmark)|Danish Defence Command]], the [[Danish Defence Research Establishment]] and the [[Danish Defence Intelligence Service]]. Furthermore around 55,000 serve as volunteers in the [[Home Guard (Denmark)|Danish Home Guard]] ({{lang|da|''Hjemmeværnet''}}).
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The country is a strong supporter of international [[peacekeeping]]. The Danish Defence has around 1,400<ref>{{cite web|url=http://forsvaret.dk/FMN/Verdenskort/ |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071227125607/http://forsvaret.dk/FMN/Verdenskort/ |archivedate=27 December 2007 |title=Forsvarsministerens Verdenskort |publisher=Web.archive.org |date=27 December 2007 |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref> staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to [[Standing NRF Mine Countermeasures Group 1|NATO SNMCMG1]]. The three largest contributions are in [[Afghanistan]] ([[International Security Assistance Force|ISAF]]), [[Kosovo]] ([[Kosovo Force|KFOR]]) and [[Lebanon]] ([[United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon|UNIFIL]]). Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in [[Iraq]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2007/02/200852514261678446.html |title=Denmark follows UK Iraq pullout |publisher=Al Jazeera English |date=21 February 2007 |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref>
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Denmark is today pursuing an active foreign policy, where human rights, democracy and other crucial values are to be defended actively. In recent years [[Greenland]] and [[The Faroe Islands]] have been guaranteed a say in foreign policy issues such as fishing, [[whaling]], and geopolitical concerns.
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===Administrative divisions===
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{{col-begin}}
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{{col-break|width=70%}}
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{{Main|Regions of Denmark|Municipalities of Denmark}}
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Denmark proper is divided into five [[regions of Denmark|regions]] ({{lang-da|regioner}}, singular: ''region'') and a total of 98 [[List of municipalities of Denmark|municipalities]]. The regions were created on 1 January 2007 to replace the [[Counties of Denmark|former counties]]. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 270 to 98. Most municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 people to give them financial and professional sustainability, although a few exceptions were made to this rule.<ref>[http://www.citypopulation.de/Denmark.html Denmark: Regions, Municipalities, Cities & Major Urban Areas] – Statistics and Maps on ''City Population''.</ref> The most important area of responsibility for regions is the national health service. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the [[health care|health service]] is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of eight percent ({{lang-da|sundhedsbidrag}}) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.<ref name=expat>[http://expatindenmark.com/infocentre/forexpats/Pages/Taxes.aspx Taxes] – Expat In Denmark. Retrieved 13 March 2012.</ref> Municipalities and regions are led by directly elected councils, elected every four years. The last [[Danish local elections, 2009|Danish local elections]] were held on 17 November 2009.
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The [[Ertholmene]] archipelago, with a population of 96 (2008), is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the [[Ministry of Defence (Denmark)|Ministry of Defence]].<ref>{{cite news |first=Jonas |last=Michael Kjær |title=Christiansø betaler ikke sundhedsbidrag |date=15 November 2006 |url=http://www.dr.dk/Regioner/Bornholm/Nyheder/Christiansoe/2006/11/15160130.htm |work=dr.dk |accessdate=12 August 2007}}{{da icon}}</ref>
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{{col-break|width=30%}}
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<div style="float:right">{{Danish regions}}</div>
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{{Col-end}}
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{|class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"
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|-
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! colspan=7 |Regions
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! colspan=1 rowspan=2 |Number of<br> Municipalities
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|- bgcolor="#cccccc"
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! Danish name !! English name !! Seat of administration !! Largest city <small>(populous)</small>|| Population<br><small>(January 2012)</small> !! Area<br/><small>(km²)</small> !! Density<br><small>(pop. per km²)
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|-
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|| Region Hovedstaden || [[Capital Region of Denmark]] || [[Hillerød]] || [[Copenhagen]] || align="right" | 1,714,486 || align="right" | 2,546.3 || align="right" | 673.32 ||style="text-align:right;"| 29 [[List of municipalities of Denmark#Capital Region of Denmark|(list)]]
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|-
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|| Region Midtjylland || [[Central Denmark Region]] || [[Viborg, Denmark|Viborg]] || [[Aarhus]] || align="right" | 1,266,682 || align="right" | 13,000.2|| align="right" | 97.44 ||style="text-align:right;"| 19 [[List of municipalities of Denmark#Central Denmark Region|(list)]]
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|-
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|| Region Nordjylland || [[North Denmark Region]] || [[Aalborg]] || [[Aalborg]] || align="right" | 579,996 || align="right" | 7,874.0|| align="right" | 73.66 ||style="text-align:right;"| 11 [[List of municipalities of Denmark#North Denmark Region|(list)]]
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|-
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|| Region Sjælland || [[Region Zealand]] || [[Sorø]] || [[Roskilde]] || align="right" | 817,907 || align="right" | 7,217.8 || align="right" | 113.32 ||style="text-align:right;"| 17 [[List of municipalities of Denmark#Region Zealand|(list)]]
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|-
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|| Region Syddanmark || [[Region of Southern Denmark]] || [[Vejle]] || [[Odense]] || align="right" | 1,201,342 || align="right" | 12,191 || align="right" | 98.02 ||style="text-align:right;"| 22 [[List of municipalities of Denmark#Region of Southern Denmark|(list)]]
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|}
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====Greenland and the Faroe Islands====
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{{Further|Danish Realm}}
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The Kingdom of Denmark is a [[unitary state]], however the [[Faroe Islands]] and [[Greenland]] were granted [[home rule]] (political autonomy) in 1948 and 1979 respectively, having previously had the status of counties.<ref>[http://www.gfbv.it/3dossier/eu-min/autonomy.html The working autonomies in Europe] – Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker (GFBV). Retrieved 13 March 2012.</ref><ref name=stm>[http://www.stm.dk/_p_10988.html The unity of the Realm] – Statsministeriet – stm.dk. Retrieved 13 March 2012.</ref> Extensive powers have been [[devolution|devolved]] to the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which have their own governments and legislatures and are effectively [[self-governing]] in regards to domestic affairs.<ref name=stm /> However, the devolved legislatures are subordinate to the [[Folketing]] where the two territories are represented by two seats each. [[High Commissioner]]s ({{lang-da|Rigsombudsmand}}) act as representatives of the Danish government.<ref name=stm />
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==Economy==
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{{Main|Economy of Denmark}}
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[[File:Sow with piglet.jpg|thumb|right|Denmark is a leading producer of pork, and the largest exporter of pork products in the EU.<ref>[http://www.cecmanitoba.ca/resource/hearings/22/21.pdf ''An Overview of Danish Pork Industry: Integration and Structure''] by Karen Hamann – The Institute for Food Studies & Agroindustrial Development. Access date: 23 July 2012.</ref>]]
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Denmark has a modern, prosperous and [[developed economy|developed]] [[mixed economy|mixed market]] economy, ranking 21st in the world in terms of [[List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita|GDP (PPP) per capita]] and 10th in [[List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita|nominal GDP per capita]]. A liberalization of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of [[mercantilism]] and further liberalization in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s.<ref>[http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/henriksen.denmark An Economic History of Denmark]. Ingrid Henriksen, University of Copenhagen</ref><ref>Peter Mathias, Sidney Pollard: The Cambridge Economic History of Europe. p. 22.</ref> [[Property rights]] have enjoyed strong protection. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the [[Index of Economic Freedom]]<ref>[http://www.heritage.org/index/Ranking "Country Ratings"], 2012 Index of Economic Freedom. Retrieved 12 January 2012.</ref> and the [[Economic Freedom of the World]].<ref name="2011-09-20_fraserinstitute" >{{cite web | url = http://www.freetheworld.com/2011/reports/world/EFW2011_complete.pdf | title = Economic Freedom of the World: 2011 Annual Report Complete Publication (2.7 MB) | work = [[freetheworld.com]] | publisher = [[Fraser Institute]] | year = 2011 | format = PDF | accessdate =20 September 2011 }}</ref> The economy has high levels of [[international trade]] and Denmark is known as a free trade advocate in the European Union. Denmark is one of the most competitive economies in the world according to [[World Economic Forum]] 2008 report, IMD and [[The Economist]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.investindk.com/About-us/For-the-press |title=For the press |publisher=Investindk.com |accessdate=5 May 2009}}</ref>
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As a result of its acclaimed "[[flexicurity]]" model, Denmark has the most free [[labour economics|labour market]] in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, unemployment compensation is very high (security). The World Bank ranks Denmark as the easiest place in Europe to do business. Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.investindk.com/Why-Denmark |title=The world's best business environment |publisher=Investindk.com |date= |accessdate=5 July 2012}}</ref> Denmark has a competitive [[Corporate tax|company tax]] rate of 25% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates.<ref>[http://www.investindk.com/Establishing-a-business-in-Denmark Business Environment], Invest in Denmark</ref> The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% [[VAT]], in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall tax burden (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) is estimated to be 46% in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.skm.dk/tal_statistik/skatter_og_afgifter/510.html |title=Skattetrykket |publisher=Danish Ministry of Taxation |accessdate=24 June 2012}}</ref>
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Denmark has a [[labour force]] of about 2.9&nbsp;million. Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of [[tertiary education|tertiary degree]] holders in the world.<ref>[http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/ged09-en.pdf UNESCO 2009 Global Education Digest], Shared fourth with Finland at a 30.3% ratio. Graph on p28, table on p194.</ref> [[List of countries by GDP (PPP) per hour worked|GDP per hour worked]] was the 13th highest in 2009. Denmark has [[List of countries by income equality|the world's lowest level of income inequality]], according to the World Bank Gini (%),<ref name="wbg">{{cite web|url=http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi-data/#/2010/GINI|title=Gini Coefficient|publisher=Vision of Humanity.org|accessdate=23 January 2011}}</ref> and [[List of minimum wages by country|the world's highest minimum wage]], according to the IMF.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/index.aspx |title=World Economic Outlook Database, October 2010 Edition |publisher=Imf.org |date=6 October 2010 |accessdate=5 July 2012}}</ref> As of June 2010 the unemployment rate is at 7.4%, which is below the EU average of 9.6%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=teilm020&tableSelection=1&plugin=1|title=Harmonised unemployment rate by gender|publisher=[[Eurostat]]|accessdate=4 February 2012}}</ref>
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Denmark's currency, the ''[[Danish krone|krone]]'', is [[Fixed exchange rate|pegged]] at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the [[European Exchange Rate Mechanism|ERM]]. Although a [[Danish euro referendum, 2000|September 2000 referendum]] rejected adopting the euro,<ref name=denmarkandtheeuro>{{cite web|url=http://www.nationalbanken.dk/DNUK/Euro.nsf/side/Denmark_and_the_euro!OpenDocument |title=Denmark and the euro |accessdate=3 February 2007 |date=17 November 2006 |publisher=[[Danmarks Nationalbank]]}}</ref> the country in practice follows the policies set forth in the [[Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union]] and meets the economic [[Euro convergence criteria|convergence criteria]] needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the parliament are for the euro, but as yet a new referendum has not been held, despite plans;<ref>{{cite news |title=Denmark to have second referendum on euro |date=22 November 2007 |url=http://euobserver.com/18/25202|accessdate=22 November 2007}}</ref> skepticism of the EU among Danish voters has historically been strong. Denmark is known for the [[Danish cooperative movement]] within among others farming, the [[food industry]] ([[Danish Crown AmbA|Danish Crown]]), dairy production ([[Arla Foods]]), retailing ([[Brugsen]]), [[Community wind energy|wind turbine cooperatives]] and co-housing associations.
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[[File:Euro accession.svg|thumb|left|Denmark is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market, although it has opted out of the [[Eurozone]].]]
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Support for [[free trade]] is high – in a 2007 poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing.<ref>[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1684528,00.html Why Denmark Loves Globalisation], Time Magazine</ref> 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union.
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Denmark has the 9th highest [[List of countries by exports per capita|export per capita in the world]]. Denmark's main exports are: industrial production/manufactured goods 73.3% (of which machinery and instruments were 21.4%, and fuels, chemicals, etc. 26%); agricultural products and others for consumption 18.7% (in 2009 meat and meat products were 5.5% of total export; fish and fish products 2.9%).<ref name="factbook" /> Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a [[balance of payments]] surplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP [[External debt|foreign debt]] or more than 300&nbsp;billion DKK.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://liveweb.archive.org/http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/upload/16217/headword/dk/407.pdf|title=Statens Gæld og Låntagning |publisher=Statistics Denmark}}</ref>
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[[StatBank]] is the name of a large statistical database maintained by the central authority of statistics in Denmark. Online distribution of statistics has been a part of the dissemination strategy in Denmark since 1985. By this service, Denmark is a leading country in the world regarding electronic dissemination of statistics. There are about 2&nbsp;million hits every year.
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===Energy===
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[[File:DanishWindTurbines.jpg|thumb|Offshore wind turbines near [[Copenhagen]]]]
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{{Main|Energy in Denmark}}
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Denmark has considerable sources of oil and natural gas in the [[North Sea]] and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of [[Petroleum|crude oil]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/country/country_energy_data.cfm?fips=DA |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20100304094837/http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/country/country_energy_data.cfm?fips=DA |archivedate=4 March 2010 |title=EIA – International Energy Data and Analysis for Denmark |publisher=Tonto.eia.doe.gov |date=15 May 2009 |accessdate=29 May 2009}}</ref> and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009.<ref>[http://www.indexmundi.com/energy.aspx?country=dk Denmark Crude Oil Production and Consumption by Year (Thousand Barrels per Day)] – indexmundi.</ref> Most electricity is produced from coal, but 25–28% of electricity demand is supplied through wind turbines.<ref>[http://www.ens.dk/da-DK/Info/TalOgKort/Statistik_og_noegletal/Noegletal/Samlet_energiproduktion_forbrug/Sider/Forside.aspx Danske nøgletal]. www.ens.dk (2010).</ref> Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy, and {{as of|2011|05|lc=y}} Denmark derives 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5&nbsp;billion ($9.4&nbsp;billion).<ref>[http://news.yourolivebranch.org/2011/05/10/denmark-invests-the-most-in-clean-energy-per-gdp/ Denmark Invests the Most in Clean Energy per GDP] – yourolivebranch.org. Retrieved 3 January 2012</ref> Denmark is connected by [[electric transmission lines]] to other European countries. On 6 September 2012, Denmark launched the biggest wind turbine in the world, and adding four more the next four years.
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[[Electricity sector in Denmark|Denmark's electricity sector]] has integrated fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems ([[Vehicle-to-grid|V2G]]) and [[Electric vehicle|plug-in vehicles]] in the transport sector.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.energymap.dk/Technology-Areas/Intelligent-Energy/Plug-in-and-Electrical-Vehicles |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20110719122621/http://www.energymap.dk/Technology-Areas/Intelligent-Energy/Plug-in-and-Electrical-Vehicles |archivedate=19 July 2011 |title=Plug-in and Electrical Vehicles |publisher=EnergyMap.dk |accessdate=10 October 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.energymap.dk/Profiles/Department-of-Energy-Technology-Aalborg-University/Projects/The-Future-High-Efficiency-Electric-Car--Integrate |title=The Future High-Efficiency Electric Car, Integrated into the Electricity Supply Network |publisher=EnergyMap.dk |accessdate=10 October 2009}} {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}</ref>
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===Transport===
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{{Main|Transport in Denmark}}
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[[File:Copenhagen Airport Mai 2009 PD 131.JPG|thumb|[[Copenhagen Airport]] is the largest airport in Scandinavia and 15th busiest in Europe.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cph.dk/CPH/UK/INVESTOR/Traffic |title=Copenhagen Airport Traffic Statistics |publisher=Cph.dk |date= |accessdate=5 July 2012}}</ref>]]
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Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the [[Great Belt Fixed Link]], which connects [[Zealand (Denmark)|Zealand]] and [[Funen]]. It is now possible to drive from [[Frederikshavn]] in northern [[Jutland]] to [[Copenhagen]] on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is [[DSB (railway company)|DSB]] for passenger services and [[DB Schenker Rail]] for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by [[Banedanmark]]. Copenhagen has a small Metro system, the [[Copenhagen Metro]], and the [[Greater Copenhagen]] area has an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the [[S-train]]. Denmark's [[Flag carrier|national airline]] (together with Norway and Sweden) is [[Scandinavian Airlines]] (SAS), and [[Copenhagen Airport]] is the [[List of the largest airports in the Nordic countries|largest]] in Scandinavia. A ferry link to the [[Faroe Islands]] is maintained by [[Smyril Line]]. Other international ferry services are mainly operated by [[DFDS]] (to Norway and the UK), [[Scandlines]] (to Germany and Sweden), [[Stena Line]] (to Norway, Sweden, and Poland), Color Line (to Norway), and FjordLine (to Norway).
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Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the high registration tax (180%), [[VAT]] (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. The car fleet has increased by 45% over the last 30 years.
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In 2007 an attempt was made by the government to favor environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars<ref>{{cite news |title=Tyske miljøzoner sender gamle biler til Danmark |date=9 January 2009 |url=http://politiken.dk/indland/ECE626918/tyske-miljoezoner-sender-gamle-biler-til-danmark/ |work=Politiken.dk |accessdate=29 November 2010 |language=Danish}}</ref> primarily from Germany, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes.
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The average car age (year 2011) is 9.2 years.<ref>{{cite news |title=dst.dk |date= |url=http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/upload/16251/13tra.pdf |accessdate=3 September 2012 }}</ref>
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[[Bicycling in Denmark]] is a common form of transportation, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000&nbsp;km<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.visitdenmark.dk/danmark/da-dk/menu/turist/inspiration/aktivferie/cykel/cykel-ruter-og-regioner.htm |title=Cykelruter og regioner |accessdate=16 August 2011 |publisher=Visitdenmark.com |language=Danish}}{{dead link|date=June 2012}}</ref> and an estimated 7,000&nbsp;km<ref name="vcta">{{cite web |url=http://www.vcta.dk/OmVCTA.aspx |title=Vi cykler til arbejde 2011 |accessdate=16 August 2011 |publisher=[[Dansk Cyklist Forbund]] |language=Danish}}</ref> of [[Segregated cycle facilities|segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes]], Denmark has a solid bicycle infrastructure.
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=== Technology ===
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In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of [[Mærsk E class container ship|the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world]], and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of [[MAN Diesel]] engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of [[Nordic Mobile Telephone]]s, and the now-defunct Danish company [[DanCall]] was among the first to develop [[GSM]] mobile phones.<ref>[http://www.investindk.com/Clusters/ICT/Wireless-and-mobile-technology Danish wireless and mobile industry is among the world’s strongest in communication technology and software engineering]</ref>
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Danish engineers are world-leading in providing diabetes care equipment and medication products from [[Novo Nordisk]] and, since 2000, the Danish [[biotech]] company [[Novozymes]], the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch based bioethanol, has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to [[cellulosic ethanol]].<ref>[http://www.canadianbiomassmagazine.ca/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&Itemid=132&id=3101 Novozymes, the world’s leading provider of enzymes to the biofuels industry]</ref> ''[[Medicon Valley]]'', spanning the [[Øresund Region]] between Zealand and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest [[life science]] clusters, containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area. Danish software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's important programming languages: [[Anders Hejlsberg]], ([[Turbo Pascal]], [[Embarcadero Delphi|Delphi]], [[C Sharp (programming language)|C#]]); [[Rasmus Lerdorf]], ([[PHP]]); [[Bjarne Stroustrup]], ([[C++]]); [[David Heinemeier Hansson]], ([[Ruby on Rails]]); [[Lars Bak (computer programmer)|Lars Bak]] pioneer in virtual machines, ([[V8 (JavaScript engine)|V8]], [[Java virtual machine|Java VM]], [[Dart (programming language)|Dart]];) [[Lene Vestergaard Hau]] (physicist) the first person to stop light, leading to advances in [[quantum computing]], [[nanoscale engineering]] and [[linear optics]].
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===Public policy===
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{{See also|Flexicurity}}
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After deregulating the labour market in the 1990s, Denmark has one of the most free labour markets in European countries. According to World Bank labour market rankings, the [[labour market flexibility]] is at the same levels as the United States. Around 80% of employees belong to unions and the unemployment funds that are attached to them. Labour market policies are mainly determined in negotiations between the workers' unions and employers' unions, and the government only interferes if labour strikes extend for too long.
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  +
Despite the success of the trade unions, a growing number of people make contracts individually rather than collectively, and many (four out of ten employees) are contemplating dropping especially unemployment fund but occasionally even union membership altogether. The average employee receives a benefit at 47% of their [[wage|wage level]] if they have to claim benefits when unemployed. With low unemployment, very few expect to be claiming benefits at all. The only reason then to pay the earmarked money to the unemployment fund would be to retire early and receive [[retirement|early retirement]] pay (''efterløn''), which is possible from the age of 60 provided an additional earmarked contribution is paid to the unemployment fund.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ugebreveta4.dk/2008/200826/Baggrundoganalyse/LoenmodtagereKlarTilNyeDagpengeregler.aspx |title=LO's ugebrev/2008 |publisher=Ugebreveta4.dk |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref>
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The [[unemployment|unemployment rate]] for December 2007 was 2.7%, for a total of 74,900 persons, a reduction by 112,800 persons—2,400 per month—or 60% since December 2003.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/Nyt/2008/NR031.pdf|title=Ledigheden faldt til 2,7 pct. |publisher=Statistics Denmark|format=PDF|accessdate=24 July 2009}}</ref> The [[Eurostat]] unemployment number for August 2008 is 2.9%. Another measure of the situation on the labour market is the [[employment rate]], that is the percentage of people aged 15 to 64 in employment out of the total number of people aged 15 to 64. The employment rate for Denmark in 2007 was 77.1% according to Eurostat. Of all countries in the world, only [[Switzerland]] with 78.% and [[Iceland]] with 85.1% had a higher employment rate. Of the employed more than 38% (800,000 people)<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20090430160644/http://www.dst.dk/Statistik/seneste/Arbejdsmarked/ATP.aspx Beskæftigelsesindikator på grundlag af ATP-indbetalinger (foreløbige tal)]. DST.dk. In June 2008 unemployment hit a new low of only 1.6%. This rate has been dropping continuously since December 2003, when 170,700 were unemployed.</ref> of the total workforce <!--(calculated on a full time basis;total hours actually worked in public sector much lower(paid lunch alone is 130 hours yearly(=3.5 weeks full-time work in the private sector)))--> work in public sector jobs.
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The number of unemployed is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015. The number of people in the [[Legal working age|working age]] group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000;<ref>{{cite book |last=Madsen |first=Bjarne |coauthors=Svend Lundtorp |title=Arbejdsmarkedet på Sjælland og øerne i 2015 |page=10|year=2006 |publisher=Akf forlaget |url=http://www.akf.dk/udgivelser/2006/pdf/arbejdsmarkedet_sjaelland_oeer.pdf/ |accessdate=3 February 2007|isbn=87-7509-801-6}}</ref> [[part-time]] jobs are included.<ref>Statistikbanken.dk, tables AB513+ BESK11+12+13.</ref> Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average [[working time|working hours]] have risen, especially compared with the [[recession]] 1987–1993.<ref name="BusinessDK">{{cite news |first=Jens |last=Nüchel |coauthors=Lars Erik Skovgaard |title=Danskere arbejder mere og mere |date=13 December 2006 |publisher=[[Berlingske Tidende]] |url=http://www.business.dk/karriere/artikel:aid=2014652 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071011104002/http://www.business.dk/karriere/artikel:aid=2014652 |archivedate=11 October 2007 |work=Business.dk |accessdate=3 February 2007}}</ref> Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the [[Mail|postal services]] and as bus drivers, and academics.<ref name=autogenerated1>{{cite news |first=Annette |last=Bonde |title=Virksomheder foretrækker tysk arbejdskraft |date=24 September 2007 |publisher=[[Berlingske Tidende]] |url=http://www.business.dk/karriere/virksomheder-foretraekker-tysk-arbejdskraft |work=Business.dk |accessdate=23 September 2007}}</ref> In the fall of 2007, more than 250,000 foreigners are working in the country, of which 23,000 still reside in Germany or Sweden.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://politiken.dk/erhverv/article441694.ece |title=Udlændinge passer hvert 10. job |language={{da icon}} |publisher=Politiken.dk |date=19 June 2009 |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref> According to a sampling survey of over 14,000 enterprises from December 2007 to April 2008 39,000 jobs were not filled, a number much lower than earlier surveys, confirming a downturn in the [[Business cycle|economic cycle]].<ref>{{cite web|author=Af Eva Jung |url=http://www.business.dk/finans/arbejdsmarkedets-most-wanted |title=Arbejdsmarkedets most wanted |date=11 August 2008|publisher=Business.dk |accessdate=29 April 2010}}</ref>
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The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one´s home (provided there ''was'' any [[home equity]] ({{lang|da|''friværdi''}})), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dors.dk/sw5855.asp |title=Danish Economic Council Spring Report 2008 English Summary,p. 11 |publisher=Dors.dk |accessdate=20 August 2009}}</ref> In 2011, 13.4% of Denmark's population was reported to live below the poverty line.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2046.html |title=CIA World Factbook. "Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line by country" |publisher=Cia.gov |date=20 October 2009 |accessdate=5 July 2012}}</ref>
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Denmark follows the [[Nordic model]] of a [[mixed economy]], characterised by a large [[welfare state]], a high level of public expenditure and a universal social system (including [[#Health care|health care]]), financed by taxes and not by social contributions. The welfare model is accompanied by a taxation system that is both broad based (25% VAT, not including excise, duty and tax) and with a [[progressive tax|progressive income tax]] model, meaning the more money that is earned, the higher income tax percentage that gets paid (minimum tax rate for adults is 42% scaling to over 60%, except for the residents of [[Ertholmene]] that escape the otherwise ubiquitous 8% healthcare tax fraction of the income taxes<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.skat.dk/SKAT.aspx?oId=133800 |title=Skattesatser; bundgrænser, procenter og fradrag |publisher=Skat.dk |accessdate=29 April 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.skm.dk/tal_statistik/kommuneskatter/procenter/?year=2009 |title=Kommuneskatter 2007, 2008 og 2009 |publisher=Skm.dk |accessdate=29 April 2010}}</ref>). Other taxes include the registration tax on private vehicles, at a rate of 180%, on top of VAT. Lately (July 2007) this has been changed slightly in an attempt to favor more [[fuel efficiency|fuel efficient]] cars but maintaining the average taxation level more or less unchanged.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.skm.dk/foreign/english/taxindenmark2007/5344/#104|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070927035651/http://www.skm.dk/foreign/english/taxindenmark2007/5344/#104|archivedate=27 September 2007 |title=Registration tax for cars |date=24 March 2008 |publisher=Skatteministeriet}}</ref>
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  +
== Demographics ==
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{{Main|Demographics of Denmark|Languages of Denmark}}
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[[File:Population of Denmark 1.January 2012 by ancestry and continents of origin..gif|thumb|Population by ancestry and continents of origin, 2012.]]
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[[File:Ærøskøbing 1.jpg|thumb|[[Ærøskøbing]], a traditional Danish town]]
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According to 2012 figures from [[Statistics Denmark]], 89.6% of Denmark's population of over 5,580,516 is of [[Danes|Danish]] descent.{{#tag:ref|Immigrants and their descendants and foreign nationals - ''Statistics Denmark''.<br> [http://www.statsbank.dk/FOLK2 Official data] from 1 January 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
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*[http://www.statbank.dk/statbank5a/Graphics/MakeGraph.asp?gr_type=5&gr_width=600&gr_height=600&gr_fontsize=11&menu=y&PLanguage=1&pxfile=201282423219110521660FOLK2.px Pie chart]
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*[http://www.statbank.dk/statbank5a/Graphics/MakeGraph.asp?gr_type=1&gr_width=850&gr_height=600&gr_fontsize=11&menu=y&PLanguage=1&pxfile=201282423219110521660FOLK2.px Bar chart]
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*[http://www.statbank.dk/statbank5a/SelectOut/PxSort.asp?file=201282423219110521660FOLK2&PLanguage=1&MainTable=FOLK2&MainTablePrestext=Population%201.%20January&potsize=3 Figures]
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{{efn|name="denonly"}}|name="Ethnic groups"}} Many of the remaining 10.4% are immigrants—or descendants of recent immigrants—from neighbour countries, [[Turkish people|Turkey]], [[Iraqi people|Iraq]], [[Somali people|Somalia]], [[Bosnia and Herzegovina]], [[South Asia]] and the [[Middle East]]. Of the 10.4%, approximately 200,000 (34%) are of a [[Western world|Western]] background, and approx. 390,000 (66%) have a non-Western background.<ref>[http://www.dst.dk/en/Statistik/emner/indvandrere-og-efterkommere/indvandrere-og-efterkommere.aspx Immigrants and their descendants] - ''Statistcs Denmark''. Published: 1 January 2012. Accessed: 25 August 2012.</ref>
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The [[median]] age is 39.8 years, with 0.98 males per female. 98.2% of the population (age 15 and up) is literate. The [[birth rate]] is 1.74 children born per woman (2006 est.). Despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.33%.<ref name="factbook"/> An international study conducted by Adrian White at Leicester University in 2006 showed that the population of Denmark had the highest life satisfaction in the world.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/denmark-is-the-worlds-happiest-country--official-410075.html |title=Denmark is the world's happiest country – official – Europe, World |work=The Independent |location=London |date=1 August 2006 |accessdate=5 May 2009 |first=Jerome |last=Taylor}}</ref>
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[[Danish language|Danish]], [[Faroese language|Faroese]], and [[Greenlandic language|Greenlandic]] are the [[official language]]s of mainland Denmark, the Faroes, and Greenland, respectively; [[German language|German]] is an official minority language in the former [[South Jutland County]] near the German border. Danish is spoken throughout the kingdom and is the [[national language]] of Denmark. English and German are the most widely spoken foreign languages.<ref>{{cite book |editor1-first=M. Paul |editor1-last=Lewis |year=2009 |title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World |edition=16th |publisher=SIL International. |location=Dallas, Tex. |isbn= 978-1556712166 |url=http://www.ethnologue.com/ |accessdate=27 August 2012}}</ref>
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=== Religion ===
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{{Main|Religion in Denmark}}
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[[File:Roskilde mpazdziora.JPG|thumb|left|[[Roskilde Cathedral]] has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a [[World Heritage Site]].]]
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{|class="wikitable infobox" style="width: 250px; margin-right: 0; text-align: center; margin:10px"
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|+ '''Church of Denmark'''
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|-
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! year !! population !! members !! percentage
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|-
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|1984 ||5,113,500 ||4,684,060 ||91.6%
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|-
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|1990 ||5,135,409 ||4,584,450 ||89.3%
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|-
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|2000 ||5,330,500 ||4,536,422 ||85.1%
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|-
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|2005 ||5,413,600 ||4,498,703 ||83.3%
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|-
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|2007 ||5,447,100 ||4,499,343 ||82.6%
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|-
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|2008 ||5,475,791 ||4,494,589 ||82.1%
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|-
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|2009 ||5,511,451 ||4,492,121 ||81.5%
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|-
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|2010 ||5,534,738 ||4,479,214 ||80.9%
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|-
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|2011 ||5,560.628 ||4,469,109 ||80.4%
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|-
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! colspan="4" style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |<small>statistical data 1984–2002,<ref>{{da}}[http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/Nyt/2002/NR226.pdf Statistics 1984 – 2002] by the Kirkeministeriet</ref> 1990–2009<ref name=stats90>{{da}}[http://www.km.dk/folkekirken/statistik-og-oekonomi/kirkestatistik/folkekirkens-medlemstal.html Statistics 1990 – 2009] Kirkeministeriet</ref> and 2010–2011.<ref name=stats110>{{da icon}} [http://www.km.dk/folkekirken/statistik-og-oekonomi/kirkestatistik.html Membership Lutheran state church]</ref> Source Kirkeministeriet</small>
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|}
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According to official statistics from January 2011, 80.4%<ref name=stats110 /> of the population of Denmark are members of the [[Church of Denmark]] ({{lang|da|''Den danske folkekirke''}}), a [[Lutheranism|Lutheran]] church that was made the [[Established Church]] and state religion by the [[Constitution of Denmark|Constitution]].<ref>[http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html Denmark – Constitution] – Part I – Section 4 [State Church]: "The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State."</ref> This is down 0.6% compared to the year earlier and 1.2% down compared to two years earlier.<ref name=stats90 /><ref name=stats110 /> Despite the high membership figures, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services.<ref name="report 2009">{{cite web |url=http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2009/127307.htm |title=Denmark – Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor |year=2009 |work=International Religious Freedom Report 2009 |publisher=U.S. Department of State |accessdate=23 August 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.gallup.com/poll/13117/religion-europe-trust-filling-pews.aspx |title=Religion in Europe: Trust Not Filling the Pews |last=Manchin |first= Robert |date=21 September 2004 |work=Gallup Poll |publisher=[[The Gallup Organization]] |accessdate=23 August 2012}}</ref>
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The Constitution states that a member of the [[Danish Royal Family|Royal Family]] must be a part of the Established Church, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths.<ref>[http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html Denmark – Constitution] – Part II – Section 6 .</ref><ref>[http://www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/da00000_.html Denmark – Constitution] – Part VII – Section 70: "No person shall for reasons of his creed or descent be deprived of access to complete enjoyment of his civic and political rights, nor shall he for such reasons evade compliance with any common civic duty."</ref><ref name=FoR>[http://www.km.dk/fileadmin/share/Trossamfund/Freedom_of_religion.pdf Freedom of religion and religious communities in Denmark] – The Ministry of Ecclesiastical Affairs – May 2006. km.dk</ref> In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: [[Roman Catholicism in Denmark|Roman Catholicism]], [[Reformed Synod of Denmark|the Reformed Church]] and [[History of the Jews in Denmark|Judaism]],<ref name=FoR /> although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" by [[royal decree]]. Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition in Denmark, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition.<ref name=FoR />
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[[Islam in Denmark|Denmark's Muslims]] make up approximately 3% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion.<ref name="report 2009" /><ref name="muslimpopulation">[http://www.muslimpopulation.com/pdf/Denmark_Countryprofile_Euro_Islam.pdf Denmark country profile]- ''[Euro-Isalm.info]'' and ''Muslimpopulation.com'' – Retrieved 8 June 2012.</ref> As of 2009 there are nineteen recognised Muslim communities in Denmark.<ref name="muslimpopulation" /><ref>[http://www.ambdhaka.um.dk/en/menu/Denmark/Facts+about+Denmark/FactsAboutIslamInDenmark/ Facts about Islam in Denmark]{{dead link|date=June 2012}} – Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Published/Last edited 10 May 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2012. www.ambdhaka.um.dk</ref> As per an overview of various religions and denominations by the Danish Foreign Ministry, other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together.<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20060208030036/http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/UM/English/Denmark/kap1/1-14.asp Religion in Denmark] – From the [[Danish Foreign Ministry]]. Archive retrieved on 3 January 2012.</ref>
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According to the most recent [[Eurobarometer|Eurobarometer Poll]] 2010,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_en.pdf|title=Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204|date=Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010|format=PDF}}</ref> 28% of Danish citizens polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the [[wikt:Savior|saviour]] of the world.<ref>Poll performed in December 2009 among 1114 Danes between ages 18 and 74, [http://www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk/artikel/350709:Kirke---tro--Hver-fjerde-dansker-tror-paa-Jesus ''Hver fjerde dansker tror på Jesus''] (One in four Danes believe in Jesus), Kristeligt Dagblad, 23 December 2009 {{dk icon}}</ref>
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A new religious group, [[Forn Siðr — Ásatrú and Vanatrú Association in Denmark|Forn Siðr]], describes itself as a revival of the [[Norse paganism]] prevalent in Denmark before [[Christianization of Scandinavia|Christianization]]. It gained state recognition in November 2003.<ref>{{cite web|author=Torben Sørensen|url=http://www.fornsidr.dk/dk/17 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20110726151328/http://www.fornsidr.dk/dk/17 |archivedate=26 July 2011 |title=Forn Siðr – the Asa and Vane faith religious community in Denmark – Forn Siðr |publisher=Fornsidr.dk |date=19 April 2007 |accessdate=5 May 2009}}</ref>
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=== Education ===
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{{Main|Education in Denmark}}
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[[File:Copenhagen Rundetårn street left.jpg|thumb|left|upright|[[Rundetårn]] (Round Tower), an old observatory in the [[University of Copenhagen]], Denmark's oldest and largest university]]
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The Danish education system provides access to [[Danish Folkeskole Education|primary school]], [[Secondary education in Denmark|secondary school]] and [[higher education]]. All college and university education in Denmark are free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enroll in courses. Students in secondary school or higher and aged 18 or above may apply for student support which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly. As of 2012 it is approximately 6000 DKR or $1000 pr. month.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.su.dk/SU/satserSU/Sider/default.aspx |title=SU rates 2011|language=Danish|publisher=Su.dk |date= |accessdate=5 July 2012}}</ref> The [[Education Index]], published with the [[United Nations|UN]]'s [[Human Development Index]] in 2008, based on data from 2006, lists Denmark as 0.993, amongst the highest in the world, tied for first with [[Australia]], [[Canada]], [[Finland]] and [[New Zealand]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf|title=Human development indices|accessdate=16 February 2010|date=18 December 2008|publisher=Human Development Reports}}</ref>
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Primary school in Denmark is called "Public School" ({{lang|da|''[[Danish Folkeskole Education|Folkeskole]]''}}). Attendance at primary school is compulsory for a minimum of 10 years, from the age of 6 to 16. Pupils can alternatively attend "free schools" ({{lang|da|''Friskole''}}), or private schools ({{lang|da|''Privatskole''}}) – schools that are not under the administration of the [[List of municipalities of Denmark|municipalities]], such as [[Christian school]]s or [[Waldorf education|Waldorf schools]].
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Following graduation from Public School, there are several other educational opportunities, including ''[[Gymnasium (Denmark)|Gymnasium]]'' (academically oriented upper secondary education), [[Higher Preparatory Examination (HF)]] (similar to ''Gymnasium'', but one year shorter), [[Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX)]] (with focus on [[mathematics]] and engineering), and [[Higher Commercial Examination Programme]] (with a focus on trade and business), as well as [[Vocational secondary education in Denmark|vocational education]], training young people for work in specific [[trade (occupation)|trades]] by a combination of teaching and [[apprenticeship]].
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Danish universities and other higher education institutions offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. Many programmes are taught in English, including Bachelor's, Master's, PhD, exchange and summer school programmes<ref>{{cite web|url=http://studyindenmark.dk/ |title=Study in Denmark, official government website on international higher education in Denmark}}</ref>
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=== Health care ===
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{{Main|Health care in Denmark}}
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Along with Sweden and Norway, Denmark has a [[universal health care]] system, financed by taxes and not by social contributions. This system is largely financed through local (county and municipal) taxation with integrated funding and provision of [[health care]] at the local (county) level. It is the most important area of responsibility for the local regions. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of 8 percent ({{lang-da|sundhedsbidrag}}) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.<ref name=expat/> Denmark spends 9.8 percent of GDP on healthcare. The life expectancy in Denmark is 78.6 years, and there is one doctor for every 294 persons in Denmark.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://floathaven.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=179|title=Social responsibility in a technocracy|publisher=FloatHaven/TEL|year=2011}}</ref>
   
 
== Culture ==
 
== Culture ==
Danish people are all members of the big religion Legoism, where the most fanatic believers only do things by the holy Lego book. If you shave a Dane completely you will notice that his skull has the form of a Lego-mans head and he can therefore "click" objects on to his head and carry them around effortlessly. The supreme leader of the Legoists is His Popeness, Popeye "Klods Hans"(In English: "Lego Las"). You can always recognize a real Lego Believer on the Lego hair. When someone or something marry in Denmark, the customary ceremonials includes gifts of imprecious wooden Legobricks and shark-ivory Lego Sombreros to the Groom. There are a few Playmobil Believers in Denmark too though. As the Playmobil belief is very, very forbidden, they are severely hunted by the axe-killing murderers of the Lego Viking police and thus hide underground in the Magasin du Nord sours. Whenever a Playmobil believer is taken alive by the the Legoists, he, she or it will be put into Cultural Lego Integration camp (called GuLegos). The plan was originally then to release the Former playmobil believers out into society after a few months, but many playmobil believers are still being tortured untill the belive in Legoism.
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{{Main|Culture of Denmark}}
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{{See also|Law of Jante|Culture of Denmark#Science|l2=Scientific achievements of Danes}}
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[[File:Krøyer Sommeraften Skagen Sønderstrand.jpg|thumb|''Summer Evening on the [[Skagen]] Southern Beach with Anna Ancher and Marie Krøyer'' by [[P.S. Krøyer]], 1893]]
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Historically, Denmark, like its Scandinavian neighbors, has been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. For example, in 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise [[pornography]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.um.dk/publikationer/um/english/factsheetdenmark/denmarkanoverview/html/chapter05.htm |title=Denmark&nbsp; – An Overview |date=22 September 2007 |accessdate=22 September 2007|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080122084309/http://www.um.dk/publikationer/um/english/factsheetdenmark/denmarkanoverview/html/chapter05.htm|archivedate=22 January 2008}}</ref> and in 2012, Denmark replaced its "[[Registered partnership in Denmark|registered partnership]]" laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989,<ref>Sheila Rule: [http://www.nytimes.com/1989/10/02/world/rights-for-gay-couples-in-denmark.html Rights for Gay Couples in Denmark] – ''[[New York Times]]''. Published: 2 October 1989. Retrieved 7 June 2012</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://marriage.about.com/cs/samesexmarriage/a/samesex.htm |title=Same-Sex Marriage FAQ |publisher=Marriage.about.com |date=17 June 2003 |accessdate=5 May 2009}}</ref> with [[gender-neutral marriage]].<ref>{{cite news |title=Rainbow wedding bells: Denmark allows gay marriage in church |url=http://www.rt.com/news/denmark-same-sex-marriage-church-283/ |publisher=''[[RT (TV network)|RT]]'' |date=7 June 2012 |accessdate=7 June 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Denmark passes bill allowing gays to marry in church |author=AFP |url=http://tribune.com.pk/story/390257/denmark-passes-bill-allowing-gays-to-marry-in-church/ |newspaper=[[The Express Tribune]] |date=7 June 2012 |accessdate=7 June 2012}}</ref> Modesty, punctuality but above all [[Social equality|equality]] are important aspects of the Danish way of life.<ref>[http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/denmark-country-profile.html Denmark – Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. From Kwintessential]. Retrieved 4 December 2008.</ref>
   
Some Danes believe in Santa Klaus Rifbjerg. He is said to come hurling down from [[Greenland]] in an old school bus from the 1950's at Legoday plotting to put his writings down the chimneys of all the children who have been naughty this year. However, most of today's Danish children don't have chimneys. Oddly though these incredible naughty children always get the latest copy of Santa Klaus Rifbjerg's work and are then forced to read it in school as some sort of severe punishment. The older people of Denmark still believe in Santa Klaus Rifbjerg and each year they write tedious reviews to the newspapers about the importance of his latest book. It has indeed been argued that it's not just superstition but a real Santa Klaus Rifbjerg cult, which ought to be looked at in the same way as anthropologists misunderstand people from New Guinea or baby-seals from Greenland.
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The astronomical discoveries of [[Tycho Brahe]] (1546–1601), [[Ludwig A. Colding]]'s (1815–1888) neglected articulation of the principle of [[conservation of energy]], and the brilliant contributions to atomic physics of [[Niels Bohr]] (1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of [[Hans Christian Andersen]] (1805–1875), the philosophical essays of [[Søren Kierkegaard]] (1813–1855), the short stories of [[Karen Blixen]] (penname [[Isak Dinesen]]), (1885–1962), the plays of [[Ludvig Holberg]] (1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry of [[Piet Hein (Denmark)|Piet Hein]] (1905–1996), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of [[Carl Nielsen]] (1865–1931). From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with [[Dogme 95]] like those of [[Lars Von Trier]].
   
It appears that the Danes whilst producing such talents as [[Hans Christian Andersen]] and [[Søren Kierkegaard]], both very good [[Doctor Who|Doctor Whos]], however, some argue that Tom Baker will always rule their hearts.
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===Architecture===
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{{Main|Architecture of Denmark}}
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[[File:Pv jensen-klint 05 grundtvig memorial church 1913-1940.jpg|thumb|right|150px|[[Grundtvig's Church]] in Copenhagen. An example of expressionist architecture.]]
   
Ancient Danish culture centers around the great Kronborg castle in Elsinore. The castle was original build by Og the Magnificient in 1214 over the objections of Queen Oggette. Construction was finished in record time and the queen was eventually drowned in the moat since, as one Danish ka-niggit put it, "the lady doth protest too much!" (in Danish: Øv, hvor lagde jeg dog mine vafler!". Her ghost is said to be living under the castle and having an affair with Beowulf.
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Denmark's architecture became firmly established in the [[Middle Ages]] when first [[Romanesque style|Romanesque]], then [[Gothic style|Gothic]] churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the [[Renaissance architecture|Renaissance]] style.
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During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the [[Baroque architecture|Baroque]] style, both in the capital and the provinces. [[Neoclassical architecture|Neoclassicism]] from France was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of [[Historicism (art)|Historicism]] ultimately merged into the 19th century [[National Romantic style]].<ref>[http://www.visitdenmark.com/irland/en-ie/menu/turist/inspiration/detkulturelledanmark/arkitektur/danish-architecture-an-overview.htm "Danish Architecture: An Overview"]{{dead link|date=June 2012}}, ''Visit Denmark''. Retrieved 3 September 2011.</ref>
   
Eventually, the castle was turned into a theater by Og's son, Bard the Borg, who was quoted as saying ''"the play's the thing"''. Unfortunately, for Danish theatergoers everywhere, Bard gave away the ending by telling the public that [[Hamlet]] (and everyone else) dies in the last act. The entire story was later plagiarized by [[William Shakespeare]] and used by George Lucas as a model for future [[Star Wars]] prequels.
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The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including [[expressionist architecture|expressionism]], best exemplified by the designs of architect [[Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint]], which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and [[Nordic Classicism]], which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as [[Arne Jacobsen]] entered the world scene with their highly successful [[Functionalism (architecture)#Danish Functionalism|Functionalist architecture]]. This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including [[Jørn Utzon]]'s [[Sydney Opera House]] and [[Johann Otto von Spreckelsen]]'s [[Grande Arche|Grande Arche de la Défense]] in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as [[Bjarke Ingels]] to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.<ref>[http://www.ambhanoi.um.dk/en/menu/InfoDenmark/Danish+Culture/Architecture/ "Architecture"]{{dead link|date=June 2012}}, Embassy of Denmark, Hanoi. Retrieved 3 October 2011.</ref>
   
The national dance was invented in 2011, where a group of young men decided to experiment with rhythms, bacon, and beer[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7bYk3ULcW8&feature=share]
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===Cuisine===
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{{Main|Danish cuisine}}
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[[File:Smørrebrød 4.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Danish open sandwich ({{lang|da|''[[smørrebrød]]''}}) on dark rye bread.]]
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The [[cuisine]] of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of [[Northern Germany]], consists mainly of meat and fish. This stems from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters. With 145.9&nbsp;kg of meat per person consumed in 2002, Denmark has the highest consumption of meat per person of any country in the world.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/datablog/2009/sep/02/meat-consumption-per-capita-climate-change |title=Meat consumption per capita |publisher=guardian.co.uk |accessdate=10 May 2012 |first=Felicity |last=Brown |date=2 September 2009}}</ref>
   
== Economy ==
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The open sandwiches, known as ''[[smørrebrød]]'', which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of [[ground meat]]s, such as ''[[frikadeller]]'' (meat balls), or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as ''[[flæskesteg]]'' (roast pork with crackling) or ''kogt torsk'' (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark is known for its [[Carlsberg Group|Carlsberg]] and [[Tuborg]] beers and for its [[akvavit]] and [[bitters]] although imported wine is now gaining popularity.
   
In the system of nursing homes Denmark people are forced to work, because only diligent workers may reserve places in nursing homes. The main goal of an ordinary Dane is to spend his or her last days in a ''plejehjem'', being cared for by young people, who will take their place in future. Some people even save money so they can retire faster and move to a nursing home.
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Danish chefs, inspired by continental practices, have in recent years developed an innovative series of [[gourmet]] dishes based on high-quality local produce. As a result, Copenhagen and the provinces now have a considerable number of highly acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded [[Michelin Guide|Michelin stars]].
   
The second largest pillar of the Danish economy is the export of sketches, paintings and drawings of religious leaders and prophets. This was started in the recent millennia by [[Jyllands Posten]], a small art studio and cookie bakery. Though this production have lead to many [[Eco Terrorists]] attacks against the original drawer, [[Kurt Vestergaard]].
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===Design===
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[[File:The Swan&The Egg.jpg|thumb|150px|Arne Jacobsen's ''[[Swan (chair)|Swan]]'' and ''[[Egg (chair)|Egg]]'' chairs]]
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{{Main|Danish design}}
   
The third largest pillar of the Danish economy is young people from Sweden who go there to buy alcohol, since you have to be 18 to consume alcohol in Sweden. That's why their economy went through the roof when the öresundsbridge was finished.
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Danish design is a term often used to describe a style of [[Functionalism (architecture)|functionalistic]] design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards.
   
Superseding the previous two is the cruel killing of hapless hogs, exported through the conspiracy of the EU that the Danish Prime Minister helped bring about by exploiting the hysteria of the nation during the national oil shortage in 1976. Since then, mass quantities of pigs are butchered every day to feed the nation's unending lust for wholesale slaughter, revenue and craving for bacon. Due to this practice, vegetarians are denied citizenship on general principle.
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The Danish Porcelain Factory ("[[Royal Copenhagen]]") is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. Danish design is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous designers and architects such as [[Børge Mogensen]] (1914–1972), [[Finn Juhl]] (1912–1989), [[Hans Wegner]] (1914–2007), [[Arne Jacobsen]] (1902–1971), [[Poul Kjærholm]] (1929–1980), [[Poul Henningsen]] (1894–1967) and [[Verner Panton]] (1926–1998).<ref>[http://en.ddc.dk/denmarkbydesign "Danish by Design"], ''DDC''. Retrieved 4 September 2011.</ref> [[Georg Jensen]] (1866–1935) is noted for his modern design in silver.
   
== Travel Information ==
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Other designers of note include [[Kristian Solmer Vedel]] (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, [[Jens Harald Quistgaard]] (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and [[Ole Wanscher]] (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.
Denmark is a Dangerous country to visit. There is a high-risk of getting shot in the country side, because decades ago martial law was declared outside the city boundaries. If you want to go into the cities you should also always bring a shotgun to kill the polar bears and looting Vikings. .
 
   
==See also==
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===Literature and philosophy===
*[[Bacon]]
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{{Main|Danish literature}}
*[[Vikings]]
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The first known Danish literature is myths and [[Danish folklore|folklore]] from the 10th and 11th century. [[Saxo Grammaticus]], normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop [[Absalon]] on a chronicle of [[History of Denmark|Danish history]] ([[Gesta Danorum]]). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the [[Middle Ages]]. With the [[Age of Enlightenment]] came [[Ludvig Holberg]] whose comedy plays are still being performed.
   
{{Europe}}
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[[File:Constantin Hansen 1836 - HC Andersen.jpg|thumb|left|150px|The world-famous Danish poet, [[Hans Christian Andersen]].]]
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In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the [[Modern Breakthrough]], this movement was championed by [[Georg Brandes]], [[Henrik Pontoppidan]] (awarded the [[Nobel Prize in Literature]]) and [[Jens Peter Jacobsen|J.&nbsp;P. Jacobsen]]. [[Romanticism]] influenced the renowned writer and poet [[Hans Christian Andersen]], known for his stories and [[fairy tale]]s, e.g. ''[[The Ugly Duckling]]'', ''[[The Little Mermaid]]'' and ''[[The Snow Queen]]''. In recent history [[Johannes Vilhelm Jensen]] was also awarded the [[Nobel Prize for Literature]]. [[Karen Blixen]] is famous for her novels and [[short story|short stories]]. Other Danish writers of importance are [[Gustav Wied]], [[William Heinesen]], [[Martin Andersen Nexø]], [[Piet Hein (Denmark)|Piet Hein]], [[Hans Scherfig]], [[Klaus Rifbjerg]], [[Dan Turèll|Dan Turéll]], [[Tove Ditlevsen]], [[Inger Christensen]] and [[Peter Høeg]].
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Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of [[Western philosophy]]. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was [[Søren Kierkegaard]], the creator of [[Christian existentialism]]. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including [[Harald Hoffding|Harald Høffding]], who later in his life moved on to join the movement of [[positivism]]. Among Kierkegaard's other followers include [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, and [[Rollo May]], who helped create [[humanistic psychology]]. Another Danish philosopher of note is [[Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig|Grundtvig]], whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.
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===Media===
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<!--linked from {{main|Media of Denmark}}-->
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Danish mass media is dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media [[JP/Politikens Hus]] and [[Berlingske Media]], between them, control the largest news papers [[Politiken]], [[Berlingske Tidende]] and [[Jyllands-Posten]] and major tabloids [[B.T. (tabloid)|B.T.]] and [[Ekstra Bladet]]. [[Television in Denmark|In television]], publicly owned stations [[DR (broadcaster)|DR]] and [[TV 2 (Denmark)|TV 2]] have large shares of the viewers.<ref>[http://tvm.gallup.dk/tvm/pm/default.htm ''TNS-Gallup'' meter]; Television station viewer statistics, figures for July 2012 (week 28). Retrieved 20 July 2012.</ref> In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available [[FM broadcasting|FM]] channels, competing only with local stations. The [[mainstream media]] is still very much dominant in Denmark, but the share of Danes going online for news is steadily growing.
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[[Cinema of Denmark|Danish cinema]] dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of product due largely to funding by the state-supported [[Danish Film Institute]]. The three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema have been the erotic melodrama of the [[silent film|silent era]], the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s, and lastly, the [[Dogme 95]] movement of the late 1990s. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. The Danish filmmaker [[Carl Theodor Dreyer|Carl Th. Dreyer]] (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors in the history of cinema.<ref>
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*[http://www.brightlightsfilm.com/29/carldreyer.html [[Bright Lights Film Journal]] review of Day of Wrath, Order and Gertrud]
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*[http://www.kamera.co.uk/features/carl_dreyer.php Kamera.co.uk: Carl Dreyer]
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*[http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=2:88264~T1 Allmovie: Carl Theodor Dreyer]
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*[http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19970216/REVIEWS08/401010350/1023 The Passion of Joan of Arc review by [[Roger Ebert]]]</ref>
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Other Danish filmmakers of note include the creator of the popular ''[[Olsen Gang|Olsen-banden]]'' films [[Erik Balling]]; [[Gabriel Axel]], an [[Academy Award|Oscar]]-winner for ''[[Babette's Feast]]'' in 1987; and [[Bille August]], the [[Academy Award|Oscar]]-, [[Palme d'Or]]- and [[Golden Globe Award|Golden Globe]]-winner for ''[[Pelle the Conqueror]]'' in 1988. In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark include [[Lars von Trier]], who co-created the [[Dogme 95|Dogme film movement]], and multiple award-winners [[Susanne Bier]] and [[Nicolas Winding Refn]].
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===Music===
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{{Main|Music of Denmark}}
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{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:right; float:right; margin-left:1em"
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|-
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! align=center |[[Carl Nielsen]]<br /><small>[[Wind Quintet (Nielsen)|Wind Quintet]], Op. 43<br> 1st movement</small>
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|-
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| style="text-align:left; background:#dcdcdc;"| [[File:Carl Nielsen - Wind Quintet - 1. Allegro ben moderato.ogg|120px]]
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|}
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Copenhagen and its multiple outlying islands have a [[Danish traditional music|wide range of folk traditions]]. The [[Royal Danish Orchestra]] is among the world's oldest orchestras. Denmark's most famous classical composer is [[Carl Nielsen]], especially remembered for his six symphonies and his [[Wind Quintet (Nielsen)|Wind Quintet]], while the [[Royal Danish Ballet]] specializes in the work of Danish choreographer [[August Bournonville]]. Danes have distinguished themselves as [[jazz]] musicians, and the [[Copenhagen Jazz Festival]] has acquired an international reputation.
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[[Victor Borge]], Danish comedian and musician, achieved world renown in stage, radio and television appearances spanning 60 years, with his unique blend of comedy and piano playing.
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In the early days of rock and beat, some{{Who|date=June 2012}} Danish artists quickly adapted this new type of music with success and jazz's popularity waned. The modern [[pop music|pop]] and rock scene has produced a few names of note, including [[Aqua (band)|Aqua]], [[D-A-D]], [[Dizzy Mizz Lizzy]], [[The Raveonettes]], [[Michael Learns to Rock]], [[Alphabeat]], [[Medina (singer)|Medina]], [[Oh Land]], [[Kashmir (band)|Kashmir]], [[Mew (band)|Mew]] and [[Dúné]]. All together, [[Lars Ulrich]], drummer of the band [[Metallica]], has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]].
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===Painting and photography===
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{{main|Danish art|Photography in Denmark}}
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[[File:C W Eckersberg 1841 - Kvinde foran et spejl.jpg|thumb|right|upright|[[Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg]], ''Woman in front of a Mirror'' (1841)]]
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While Danish art was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany and the Netherlands, the 15th and 16th century [[church frescos in Denmark|church frescos]] which can be seen in many of the country's older churches are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters.<ref>[http://www.panoramas.dk/kalkmalerier/ Wall Paintings in Danish Churches from Panoramas.dk]. Retrieved 12 August 2009. Adopting the [[Biblia pauperum]] approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the [[Old Testament|Old]] and [[New Testament]]s.</ref>
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The [[Danish Golden Age]], which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism. [[Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg]] was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the [[Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts]] where his students included notable painters such as [[Wilhelm Bendz]], [[Christen Købke]], [[Martinus Rørbye]], [[Constantin Hansen]], and [[Wilhelm Marstrand]]. The sculpture of [[Bertel Thorvaldsen]] was also significant during this period.<ref>[http://www.guldalder.dk/show.asp?id=219 "Guide to the Danish Golden Age"]. Retrieved 4 September 2011.</ref>
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In 1871, [[Holger Drachmann]] and [[Karl Madsen]] visited [[Skagen]] in the far north of [[Jutland]] where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful [[Skagen Painters|artists' colonies]] specializing in [[Naturalism (arts)|Naturalism]] and [[Realism (arts)|Realism]] rather than in the traditional approach favored by the Academy. Hosted by [[Michael Ancher|Michael]] and his wife [[Anna Ancher|Anna]], they were soon joined by [[P.S. Krøyer]], [[Carl Locher]] and [[Laurits Tuxen]]. All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people.<ref>[http://www.answers.com/topic/skagen Art Encyclopedia: Skagen.] Retrieved 9 December 2008.</ref> Similar trends developed on Funen with the ''[[Fynboerne]]'' who included [[Johannes Larsen]], [[Fritz Syberg]] and [[Peter Hansen (painter)|Peter Hansen]],<ref name=Funish>[http://www.johanneslarsenmuseet.dk/page.asp?sideid=2301&zcs=2200 "The Funish Art Colony"], ''Johannes Larsen Museet''. Retrieved 12 August 2011.</ref> and on the island of Bornholm with the [[Bornholm school of painters]] including [[Niels Lergaard]], [[Kræsten Iversen]] and [[Oluf Høst]].<ref>[http://www.roughguides.com/travel/europe/denmark/introduction-to-denmark.aspx The Bornholm School from the Rough Guide to Denmark.] Retrieved 10 December 2008.</ref>
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Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the [[history of photography|art]] in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of [[Danes]] in the world of [[photography]] today. Pioneers such as [[Mads Alstrup]] and [[Georg Emil Hansen]] paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century while both artistic and press photographers made internationally recognised contributions. Today Danish photographers such as [[Astrid Kruse Jensen]] and [[Jacob Aue Sobol]] are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world.<ref>[http://www.photography-now.com/popup_ausst_5.php?id_ausstellungen=T50624 Contemporary Danish Photography. From Photography-Now]. Retrieved 28 January 2010.</ref>
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Collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the [[Louisiana Museum of Modern Art]] north of [[Copenhagen]] and at the North Jutland Art Museum in [[Aalborg]]. Notable artists include the [[neo-expressionism|Neo-Expressionist]] [[Per Kirkeby]], [[Tal R]] with his wild and colorful paintings,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.camdenartscentre.org/exhibitions/?id=100436 |title="Tal R: The Sum", Camden Arts Gallery |publisher=Camdenartscentre.org |accessdate=31 October 2011}}{{dead link|date=June 2012}}</ref> [[Olafur Eliasson]]'s space exhibitions<ref>[http://media.moma.org/subsites/2008/olafureliasson/#/intro/ Take Your Time. Olafur Eliasson. From MoMA]. Retrieved 27 January 2010.</ref> and [[Jeppe Hein]]'s installations.<ref>[http://www.artdaily.org/index.asp?int_sec=11&int_new=35739 "Exhibition of Interactive Work by Artist Jeppe Hein Announced in Indianapolis", Artdaily.org]. Retrieved 4 March 2010.</ref>
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===Sports===
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{{Main|Sport in Denmark}}
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[[File:US Open 2009 4th round 156.jpg|thumb|left|150px|[[Caroline Wozniacki]], professional women's tennis player and former [[List of WTA number 1 ranked players|world no. 1]] on the [[WTA Tour]].]]
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Sports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The [[national sport]] is [[association football|football]] (soccer). Denmark qualified six times in a row between 1984 and 2004 for the [[UEFA European Football Championship|European Championships]], and won the [[1992 UEFA European Football Championship|Championship in 1992]]. Other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Championships. Notable Danish footballers include [[Peter Schmeichel]], named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and [[Michael Laudrup]], named the best Danish player of all time by the [[Danish Football Association]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Michael Laudrup bedste spiller gennem tiderne |publisher=DBU |date=13 November 2006 |url= http://www.dbu.dk/news/newsShow.aspx?id=235647 |accessdate=18 November 2012}}</ref>
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In recent years, Denmark has made a mark as a strong [[cycling]] nation, with [[Bjarne Riis]] winning [[Tour de France]] in 1996 and [[Michael Rasmussen]] reaching [[King of the Mountains]] status in the Tour in 2005 and 2006. In [[motorcycle speedway|speedway racing]] Denmark has won several world championships, including the [[Speedway World Cup]] in [[2006 Speedway World Cup|2006]] and [[2008 Speedway World Cup|2008]].
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Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic;<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20070716195104/http://www.dif.dk/OmDIF/Forside/Idraetten%20i%20tal/medlemstal.aspx Om DIF – Medlemstal] {{Language icon|da}}, ''The National Olympic Committee and Sports Confederation of Denmark''</ref> tennis—in which Denmark is successful on a professional level; rugby—the [[Danish Rugby Union]] dates back to 1950;<ref>Bath, Richard (ed.) ''The Complete Book of Rugby'' (Seven Oaks Ltd, 1997 ISBN 1-86200-013-1) p66. Archived from July 2007 and Retrieved June 2012.</ref> rowing—Denmark specialize in light-weight rowing and are particularly known for their light-weight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze Olympic medals; and several indoor sports—especially [[badminton]], [[team handball|handball]], [[table tennis]] and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark holds World Championships and Olympic medals. Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports.
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{{As of|2012|01}}, the [[Denmark national handball team|national handball team]] are the current reigning European champions. On the men's side, they have won five medals—two gold (in 2008 and 2012) and three bronze (in 2002, 2004 and 2006)--the most that have been won by any team in European Championship history.
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{{clear}}
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== See also ==
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{{portal|European Union|Denmark|Faroe Islands|<!-- Greenland -->}}
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* [[Index of Denmark-related articles]]
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* [[Outline of Denmark]]
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{{-}}
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== Notes ==
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{{notelist|30em}}
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== References ==
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{{Reflist|30em}}
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;Bibliography
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*{{da icon}} Busck, Steen and Poulsen, Henning (ed.), "Danmarks historie&nbsp; – i grundtræk", Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2002, ISBN 87-7288-941-1
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*{{da icon}} {{Cite book|last1=Gammelgaard |first1=Frederik |last2=Sørensen |first2=Niels
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|year=1998
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|title=Danmark – en demokratisk stat
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|publisher=Alinea
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|isbn=87-23-00280-8|ref=harv}}
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*{{da icon}} {{Cite book|last=Jørgensen |first=Gitte
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|year=1995
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|title=Sådan styres Danmark
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|publisher=Flachs
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|isbn=87-7826-031-0|ref=harv}}
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*{{da icon}} Michaelsen, Karsten Kjer, "Politikens bog om Danmarks oldtid", Politikens Forlag (1. bogklubudgave), 2002, ISBN 87-00-69328-6
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*{{swe icon}} Nationalencyklopedin, vol. 4, Bokförlaget Bra Böcker, 2000, ISBN 91-7024-619-X.
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== External links ==
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{{Sister project links|Denmark|b=no|q=no|v=no|voy=Denmark}}
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* [http://www.denmark.dk/ Denmark.dk]
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*{{CIA World Factbook link|da|Denmark}}
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*[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/157748/Denmark Denmark] entry at ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]''.
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*[http://www.denmark.net/denmark-guide/danish-culture.html A guide to Danish Culture] at ''Denmark.net''.
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*[http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/denmark.htm Denmark] at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''.
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*{{dmoz|Regional/Europe/Denmark}}
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*[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-17929661 Denmark profile] from the [[BBC News]].
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*[http://www.visitdenmark.com/ Tourism portal] at ''VisitDenmark''.
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*[http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=DK Key Development Forecasts for Denmark] from [[International Futures]].
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;Government
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*[http://www.um.dk/en Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark]
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*[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/world-leaders-1/world-leaders-d/denmark.html Chief of State and Cabinet Members]
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*[http://statistikbanken.dk/statbank5a/SelectVarVal/Define.asp?Maintable=HISB3&PLanguage=1 Summary vital statistics about Denmark] from ''Statistikbanken''.
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;Maps
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*{{wikiatlas|Denmark}}
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*{{osmrelation-inline|50046}}
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*[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3389 Satellite image of Denmark] at the [[NASA Earth Observatory]].
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; News and media
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*[http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&ned=us&ie=UTF-8&q=denmark%2F&btnG=Search Google news Denmark]
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*[http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/History_of_Denmark:_Primary_Documents History of Denmark: Primary Documents]
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*{{da icon}} [http://kort.krak.dk/borgerdk.kortsoegning/imapDKbig.asp Krak printable mapsearch]
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*{{sv icon}} {{en icon}} [http://www2.kms.dk/C1256AED004EA666/(AllDocsByDocld)/B825612735012CB1C1256AEF002C0B2C Ministry of the Environment National Survey and Cadastre]
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*[http://web.archive.org/web/20060208174808/http://olddenmark.dk/ Old Denmark in Cyberspace – Information about Denmark – the Danes]
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;Other
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*[http://www.vifanord.de/index.php?id=1&L=1&rd=243343734 Vifanord.de] – library of scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries.
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Revision as of 19:41, February 23, 2013

This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Denmark (disambiguation).

Template:Use dmy dates Template:Pp-move-indef Template:Infobox country

Denmark ( /ˈdɛnmɑrk/

Template:Lang-da, Template:IPA-da), officially the Kingdom of Denmark (Template:Lang-da, Template:IPA-da), is a Scandinavian sovereign state in Northern Europe, with two additional overseas constituent countries also forming integral parts of the kingdom
Greenland and the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic. Continental Denmark is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, located southwest of Sweden, with which it is connected by the Øresund Bridge, and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The country consists of a large peninsula, Jutland, and many islands, most notably Zealand, Funen, Lolland, Falster and Bornholm, as well as hundreds of minor islands often referred to as the Danish Archipelago.

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy organised in the form of a parliamentary democracy, with its seat of government in the capital city of Copenhagen. The kingdom is unitary, with powers to manage internal affairs being devolved from the central government to Greenland and the Faroe Islands; this polity is referred to as the rigsfællesskab (the Danish Realm). Denmark proper is the hegemonial area, where judicial, executive, and legislative power reside.[1] The Faroe Islands are defined to be a community of people within the kingdom, and the Greenlandic people are defined as a separate people with the right to self-determination.[2][3] One of the results of this arrangement is that Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973, but both Greenland and the Faroe Islands have opted to remain outside the EU.

Originally the home of the Vikings, Norse seafaring explorers who invaded and settled in many parts of Europe and Russia, Denmark emerged as a unified kingdom in the Middle Ages. Denmark's later history has particularly been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas. This meant that it was between Sweden and Germany and thus at the center of the mutual struggle for control of the Baltic Sea; before the digging of the Kiel Canal, water passage to the Baltic Sea was possible only through the three channels known as the Danish straits. Denmark was long in disputes with Sweden over control of Skånelandene (Scanian War) and Norway, and in disputes with the Hanseatic League over the duchies of Schleswig (a Danish fief) and Holstein (a German fief). Eventually Denmark lost the conflicts and ended up ceding first Skånelandene to Sweden and later Schleswig-Holstein to the German Empire. Denmark obtained Greenland and the Faroe Islands in 1814 after the dissolution of a personal union with Norway, although the Danish monarchy, which had ruled over both Norway and Denmark, had been in possession of the colonies since the fourteenth century.

A founding member of the United Nations, NATO and the OECD, Denmark is also a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. With a highly developed mixed market economy and a large welfare state, Denmark ranks as having the world's highest level of income equality,[4] and has one of the world's highest per capita income. It has frequently ranked as the happiest[5][6] and least corrupt country in the world.[7] In 2011, Denmark was listed 16th on the Human Development Index (8th on the inequality-adjusted HDI), 3rd on the Democracy Index and 2nd on the Corruption Perceptions Index. The national language, Danish, is closely related to Swedish and Norwegian, with which it shares strong cultural and historical ties. Denmark, along with Sweden and Norway, is part of the cultural region known as Scandinavia and is also a member of the Nordic Council.

Etymology

Main article: Etymology of Denmark

The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a single kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate.[8][9] This is centered primarily around the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. The issue is further complicated by a number of references to various Dani people in Scandinavia or other places in Europe in Greek and Roman accounts (like Ptolemy, Jordanes, and Gregory of Tours), as well as mediaeval literature (like Adam of Bremen, Beowulf, Widsith and Poetic Edda).

Most handbooks derive[10] the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave", Sanskrit dhánuṣ- (धनुस्; "desert"). The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland (see marches), with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig,[11]

The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old (c. 955) and Harald Bluetooth (c. 965). The larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's baptismal certificate (dåbsattest), though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative Template:Runic "tanmaurk" ([danmɒrk]) on the large stone, and genitive "tanmarkar" (pronounced [danmarkaɽ]) on the small stone.[12] The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "tani" ([danɪ]), or "Danes", in the accusative.

History

Main article: History of Denmark
See also: History of Greenland and History of the Faroe Islands

Prehistory

The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC.[13] Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC.[14] The Nordic Bronze Age (1800–600 BC) in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot.

During the Pre-Roman Iron Age (500 BC  – 1 AD), native groups began migrating south, although[14] the first Danish people came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age,[15] in the Roman Iron Age (1–400 AD). The Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, and Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron.

File:Trundholm.jpg

Historians believe that before the arrival of the precursors to the Danes, who came from the east Danish islands (Zealand) and Skåne and spoke an early form of North Germanic, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by Jutes. They were later invited to Great Britain as mercenaries by Brythonic King Vortigern and were granted the southeastern territories of Kent, the Isle of Wight among other areas, where they settled. They were later absorbed or ethnically cleansed by the invading Angles and Saxons, who formed the Anglo-Saxons. The remaining population in Jutland assimilated in with the Danes.

A short note[16] about the Dani in "Getica" by historian Jordanes is believed by some[who?] to be an early mention of the Danes,[17] one of the ethnic groups from whom the modern Danish people are descended. The Danevirke defence structures were built in phases from the 3rd century forward,[18] and the sheer size of the construction efforts in 737 are attributed to the emergence of a Danish king.[18] The new runic alphabet was first used around the same time, and Ribe, the oldest town of Denmark, was founded about 700.

Middle Ages

Main articles: Viking Age and Kalmar Union
File:Ladbyskibet.jpg

From the 8th to the 10th century, the Danes were known as Vikings. Together with Norwegians and Swedes, they colonised, raided and traded in all parts of Europe. Viking explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century, on the way towards the Faroe Islands and eventually came across "Vinland" (Land of wine) also known today as Newfoundland, in Canada. The Danish Vikings were most active in the British Isles and Western Europe. They temporarily conquered and settled parts of England (known as the Danelaw), Ireland and France where they founded Normandy. More Anglo-Saxon pence of this period have been found in Denmark than in England. As attested by the Jelling stones, the Danes were united and Christianised about 965 by Harald Bluetooth. It is believed that Denmark became Christian for political reasons so as not to get invaded by the rising Christian power in Europe, Germania, which was an important trading area for the Danes. In that case Harald built six fortresses around Denmark called Trelleborg and built a further Danevirke. In the early 11th century Canute the Great won and united Denmark, England and Norway for almost 30 years.[19]

Throughout the High and Late Middle Ages, Denmark also included Skåneland (Skåne, Halland and Blekinge) and Danish kings ruled Danish Estonia, as well as the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Most of the latter two now form the state of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.

In 1397, Denmark entered into a personal union with Norway and Sweden, united under Queen Margaret I. The three countries were to be treated as equals in the union. However, even from the start Margaret may not have been so idealistic—treating Denmark as the clear "senior" partner of the union.[20] Thus, much of the next 125 years of Scandinavian history revolves around this union, with Sweden breaking off and being re-conquered repeatedly. The issue was for practical purposes resolved on 17 June 1523, as Swedish King Gustav Vasa conquered the city of Stockholm.

The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and following the Count's Feud civil war, Denmark converted to Lutheranism in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway.

Early modern history

Main article: Denmark–Norway
File:Slaget ved oland maleri av claus moinichen 1686.jpg

After Sweden permanently broke away from the Kalmar Union in 1523, Denmark tried on two occasions to reassert control over Sweden. The first was in the Northern Seven Years War which lasted from 1563 until 1570. The second occasion was the Kalmar War when King Christian IV attacked Sweden in 1611 but failed to accomplish his main objective of forcing Sweden to return to the union with Denmark. The war led to no territorial changes, but Sweden was forced to pay a war indemnity of 1 million silver riksdaler to Denmark, an amount known as the Älvsborg ransom.[21]

King Christian used this money to found several towns and fortresses, most notably Glückstadt (founded as a rival to Hamburg), Christiania (following a fire destroying the original city of Oslo), Christianshavn, Christianstad and Christiansand. Christian also constructed a number of buildings, most notably Børsen, Rundetårn, Nyboder, Rosenborg, a silver mine and a copper mill. Inspired by the Dutch East India Company, he founded a similar Danish company and planned to claim Ceylon as a colony, but the company only managed to acquire Tranquebar on India's Coromandel Coast. Denmark's large colonial aspirations were limited to a few key trading posts in Africa and India.

In the Thirty Years' War, Christian tried to become the leader of the Lutheran states in Germany but suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Lutter.[22] The result was that the Catholic army under Albrecht von Wallenstein was able to invade, occupy and pillage Jutland,[23] forcing Denmark to withdraw from the war. Denmark managed to avoid territorial concessions, but Gustavus Adolphus' intervention in Germany was seen as a sign that the military power of Sweden was on the rise while Denmark's influence in the region was declining. Swedish armies invaded Jutland in 1643 and claimed Skåne in 1644. According to Geoffrey Parker, "The Swedish occupation caused a drop in agricultural production and a shortage of capital; harvest failure and plague ravaged the land between 1647 and 1651; Denmark's population fell by 20 per cent."[24]

In the 1645 Treaty of Brømsebro, Denmark surrendered Halland, Gotland, the last parts of Danish Estonia, and several provinces in Norway. In 1657, king Frederick III declared war on Sweden and marched on Bremen-Verden. This led to a massive Danish defeat and the armies of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden conquered both Jutland, Funen and much of Zealand before signing the Peace of Roskilde in February 1658 which gave Sweden control of Skåne, Blekinge, Trøndelag and the island of Bornholm. Charles X Gustav quickly regretted not having destroyed Denmark completely and in August 1658 he began a two-year long siege of Copenhagen but failed to take the capital. In the following peace settlement, Denmark managed to maintain its independence and regain control of Trøndelag and Bornholm.

Denmark tried to regain control of Skåne in the Scanian War (1675–79) but this attempt was a failure. Following the Great Northern War (1700–21), Denmark managed to restore control of the parts of Schleswig and Holstein ruled by the house of Holstein-Gottorp in 1721 and 1773, respectively. In the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark originally tried to pursue a policy of neutrality and trade with both France and the United Kingdom and joined the League of Armed Neutrality with Russia, Sweden and Prussia. The British considered this a hostile act and attacked Copenhagen in both 1801 and 1807, in one case carrying off the Danish fleet, in the other, burning large parts of the Danish capital. This led to the so-called Danish-British Gunboat War, but the British control of the waterways between Denmark and Norway proved disastrous to the union's economy and in 1813, Denmark-Norway went bankrupt. The Danish-Norwegian union was dissolved by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Norway entered a new union with Sweden which lasted until 1905. Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland. Apart from the Nordic colonies, Denmark ruled over Danish India (Tranquebar in India) from 1620 to 1869, the Danish Gold Coast (Ghana) from 1658 to 1850, and the Danish West Indies (the U.S. Virgin Islands) from 1671 to 1917.

Constitutional monarchy

File:Grundlovgivende rigsforsamling - Constantin Hansen.jpg

The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European Revolutions of 1848 Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. A two-chamber parliament was established. After the Second War of Schleswig in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia, in a defeat that left deep marks on the Danish national identity.[citation needed] After these events, Denmark pursued a policy of neutrality in Europe.

Denmark remained neutral during World War I. After the defeat of Germany, the Versailles powers offered to return the region of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark. Fearing German irredentism, Denmark refused to consider the return of the area without a plebiscite. The two Schleswig Plebiscites took place on 10 February and 14 March, respectively. On 10 July 1920, Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) was recovered by Denmark, thereby adding 163,600 inhabitants and 3,984 km². The reunion day (Genforeningsdag) is celebrated every year 15 June on Valdemarsdag.

File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg

Denmark signed a 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany in 1939. Germany's invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940  – code named Operation Weserübung  – met only two hours of military resistance before the Danish government surrendered. Economic co-operation between Germany and Denmark continued until 1943, when the Danish government refused further co-operation and its navy sank most of its ships and sent as many of their officers as they could to Sweden. During the war, the government was helpful towards the Danish Jewish minority, and the Danish resistance performed a rescue operation that managed to get most of them to Sweden and safety shortly before the Germans planned to round up the Danish Jews. Denmark led many "inside operations" or sabotage against the German facilities.[citation needed] Danish doctors refused to treat German citizens fleeing from Germany, which resulted in the deaths of 13,000 people.[25][26] Danish citizens volunteered to fight Russia in cooperation with Germany as part of Frikorps Danmark.[27] Iceland severed ties to Denmark and became an independent republic in 1944, and in 1948, the Faroe Islands gained home rule.

Constitutional change in 1953 led to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation, female accession to the Danish throne and Greenland becoming an integral part of Denmark. The Social Democrats (Denmark) led a string of coalition governments for most of the second half of the 20th century in a country generally known for its liberal traditions. Poul Schluter then became the first Danish prime minister from the Conservative People's Party (Denmark) in 1982, leading a centre-right coalition until 1993, when he was succeeded by the Social Democrat Poul Nyrup Rasmussen. A new centre-right coalition headed by Anders Fogh Rasmussen came to power in 2001 promising tighter immigration controls. A third successive centre-right leader, Lars Løkke Rasmussen, was prime minister from 2009 to 2011. His government, dependent as it was on the right-wing populist People's Party to push through legislation, witnessed immigration and integration emerge as major issues of public debate. Social Democrat Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Denmark's first female prime minister, took office in 2011, ending a decade of centre-right rule.

After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of the United Nations and NATO, and in 1973, along with Britain and Ireland, joined the European Economic Community after a public referendum. The Maastricht treaty involving further European integration was rejected by the Danish people in 1992. It was only accepted after a second referendum in 1993 and the addition of certain opt-out concessions for Denmark. The Danes rejected the euro as the national currency in a referendum in September 2000. Greenland gained home rule in 1979 and was awarded self-determination in 2009. Neither Greenland nor the Faroe Islands are members of the European Union, the Faroese declined membership of the EEC in 1973 and Greenland in 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.

Despite its modest size, since World War II, Denmark has participated in generally UN sanctioned, and often NATO led, military and humanitarian operations, including: Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Korea, Egypt, Croatia, Kosovo, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia and recently Libya. In 2009 Anders Fogh Rasmussen resigned as Prime Minister of Denmark to become the Secretary General of NATO.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Denmark
File:Da-map.png
File:Satellite image of Denmark in July 2001.jpg

Located in Northern Europe, Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland and 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100 m² in total).[28] Of these, 72 are inhabited,[29] with the largest being Zealand and Funen. The island of Bornholm is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. The largest cities with populations over 100,000 are the capital Copenhagen on Zealand; Århus and Aalborg in Jutland; and Odense on Funen.

Denmark occupies an area of 43,094  (Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",". ).[30][31] The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). It shares a border of 68 kilometres with Germany to the south and is otherwise surrounded by 7,314 km (4,545 mi) of tidal shoreline (including small bays and inlets).[32] No location in Denmark is further from the coast than 52 km (32 mi). On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1  (Expression error: Unexpected round operator. ), and the tideline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch.[33]

Denmark's northernmost point is Skagens point (the north beach of the Skaw) at 57° 45' 7" northern latitude; the southernmost is Gedser point (the southern tip of Falster) at 54° 33' 35" northern latitude; the westernmost point is Blåvandshuk at 8° 4' 22" eastern longitude; and the easternmost point is Østerskær at 15° 11' 55" eastern longitude. This is in the archipelago Ertholmene 18 kilometres northeast of Bornholm. The distance from east to west is 452 kilometres (281 mi), from north to south 368 kilometres (229 mi).

The country is flat with little elevation; having an average height above sea level of 31 metres (102 ft). The highest natural point is Møllehøj, at 170.86 metres (560.56 ft). The area of inland water is 700  (Expression error: Unexpected round operator. mi²).

Phytogeographically, the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands) belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Arctic, Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Denmark can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Atlantic mixed forests and Baltic mixed forests. The Faroe Islands are covered by the Faroe Islands boreal grasslands, while Greenland hosts the ecoregions of Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra and Kalaallit Nunaat low arctic tundra.

Climate

Denmark has a temperate climate, characterised by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January and February of 0.0 °C (32 °F), and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of 15.7 °C (60.3 °F).[34] Denmark has an average of 121 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of 712 millimetres (28 in) per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest.[34]

Because of Denmark's northern location, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. There are short days during the winter with sunrise coming around 8:45 am and sunset 3:45 pm, as well as long summer days with sunrise at 4:30 am and sunset at 10 pm.[35]

Environment

Template:Multiple image

Denmark has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and was the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973.[36] To mitigate environmental degradation and global warming the Danish Government has signed the following international agreements: Antarctic Treaty; Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol; Endangered Species Act[31]

Copenhagen is the spearhead of the bright green environmental movement in Denmark[37] Copenhagen's most important environment research institutions are the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School,[38] Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and the Technical University of Denmark, which Risø is now part of. Leading up to the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference (Copenhagen Summit), the University of Copenhagen held the Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions conference where the need for comprehensive action to mitigate climate change was stressed by the international scientific community. Notable figures such as Rajendra K. Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC, Professor Nicholas Stern, author of the Stern Report and Professor Daniel Kammen all emphasised the good example set by Copenhagen and Denmark in capitalising on cleantech and achieving economic growth while stabilising carbon emissions.

Denmark's green house gas emissions per dollar of value produced has been for the most part unstable since 1990, seeing sudden growths and falls. Overall though, there has been a reduction in gas emissions per dollar value added to its market.[39] It lags behind other Scandinavian countries such as Norway[40] and Sweden.[41]

Governance

Main article: Politics of Denmark
File:Queen Magrethe sep 7 2005.png

The Kingdom of Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which Queen Margrethe II is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to ceremonial functions.[42] The monarch is not answerable for his or her actions, and the monarch's person is sacrosanct.[43] The Danish political system operates under a framework laid out in the Constitution of Denmark. Changes to it require an absolute majority in two consecutive parliamentary terms and majority approval through a referendum (and the referendum majority constitutes at least 40 per cent of the electorate).[44] The Constitution lays out a political system based on the separation of powers into the three branches of government; the legislative, the executive and the judiciary branches.

Political system

File:Kbh IMG 6504.JPG

The Folketing is the national parliament, the supreme legislative body of the kingdom. In theory it has the ultimate legislative authority according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, it is able to legislate on any matter and not bound by decisions of its predecessors. However questions over sovereignty have been brought forward because of Denmark's entry into the European Union. Parliament consists of 175 members elected by proportional majority, plus two members each from Greenland and the Faroe Islands.[45] Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years, but it is within the powers of the prime minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the parliament may force a single minister or the entire government to resign.[46]

The Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most Danish post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties.[47]

File:Helle Thorning-Schmidt-2.jpg

The prime minister is formally appointed by the monarch, on the advice of party leaders following an election or collapse of a government. In practice the prime minister is chosen through negotiation between the parliament party leaders, customarily with the leader of the largest party in a coalition being appointed. Executive authority is exercised on behalf of the monarch by the prime minister and other cabinet ministers who head departments. The cabinet, prime minister and other ministers collectively make up the government of Denmark.

Lars Løkke Rasmussen was the prime minister from April 2009 until September 2011. He headed a right-wing government coalition consisting of Venstre (a conservative liberal party) and the Conservative People's Party, with parliamentary support from the national-conservative Danish People's Party. Following the September 2011 election the right wing lost by a small margin to the opposing left-wing coalition, led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt who on 3 October 2011 formed a new government consisting of the Social Democrats, the Danish Social Liberal Party and the Socialist People's Party. Helle Thorning-Schmidt became the first female prime minister in Denmark.

Judicial system

Main article: Courts of Denmark

Judicial authority remains separate from the executive and legislature and lies with the courts of justice. The Kingdom of Denmark does not have a single unified judicial system – Denmark proper has one system, Greenland another, and the Faroe Islands a third.[48] However, decisions by the highest courts in Greenland and the Faroe Islands may be appealed to the Danish High Courts. The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in the kingdom.

Articles 62 and 64 of the Danish Constitution ensure judicial independence from Government and Parliament by providing that judges shall only be guided by the law, including acts, statutes and practice.[49]

Foreign relations and military

Template:Further

Danish foreign policy is based on its identity as a sovereign nation in Europe. As such its primary foreign policy focus is on its relations with other nations as a sovereign independent nation. Denmark has long had good relations with other nations. It has been involved in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states (Estonia,[50] Latvia, and Lithuania).[51] Following World War II, Denmark ended its two-hundred-year policy of neutrality. Denmark has been a member of NATO since its founding in 1949, and membership in NATO remains highly popular.[52] There were several serious confrontations between the U.S. and Denmark on security policy in the so-called "footnote era" (1982–88), when an alternative parliamentary majority forced the government to adopt specific national positions on nuclear and arms control issues.[52] With the end of the Cold War, however, Denmark has been supportive of U.S. policy objectives in the Alliance.

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Denmark's armed forces are known as the Danish Defence (Template:Lang-da). During peacetime, the Ministry of Defence in Denmark employs around 33,000 in total. The main military branches employ almost 27,000: 15,460 in the Royal Danish Army, 5,300 in the Royal Danish Navy and 6,050 in the Royal Danish Air Force (all including conscripts).

The Danish Emergency Management Agency (

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) employs 2,000 (including conscripts), and about 4,000 are in non-branch-specific services like the Danish Defence Command, the Danish Defence Research Establishment and the Danish Defence Intelligence Service. Furthermore around 55,000 serve as volunteers in the Danish Home Guard (

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).

The country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. The Danish Defence has around 1,400[53] staff in international missions, not including standing contributions to NATO SNMCMG1. The three largest contributions are in Afghanistan (ISAF), Kosovo (KFOR) and Lebanon (UNIFIL). Between 2003 and 2007, there were approximately 450 Danish soldiers in Iraq.[54]

Denmark is today pursuing an active foreign policy, where human rights, democracy and other crucial values are to be defended actively. In recent years Greenland and The Faroe Islands have been guaranteed a say in foreign policy issues such as fishing, whaling, and geopolitical concerns.

Administrative divisions

Denmark proper is divided into five regions (Template:Lang-da, singular: region) and a total of 98 municipalities. The regions were created on 1 January 2007 to replace the former counties. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 270 to 98. Most municipalities have a population of at least 20,000 people to give them financial and professional sustainability, although a few exceptions were made to this rule.[55] The most important area of responsibility for regions is the national health service. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of eight percent (Template:Lang-da) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.[56] Municipalities and regions are led by directly elected councils, elected every four years. The last Danish local elections were held on 17 November 2009.

The Ertholmene archipelago, with a population of 96 (2008), is neither part of a municipality nor a region but belongs to the Ministry of Defence.[57]

Regions Number of
Municipalities
Danish name English name Seat of administration Largest city (populous) Population
(January 2012)
Area
(km²)
Density
(pop. per km²)
Region Hovedstaden Capital Region of Denmark Hillerød Copenhagen 1,714,486 2,546.3 673.32 29 (list)
Region Midtjylland Central Denmark Region Viborg Aarhus 1,266,682 13,000.2 97.44 19 (list)
Region Nordjylland North Denmark Region Aalborg Aalborg 579,996 7,874.0 73.66 11 (list)
Region Sjælland Region Zealand Sorø Roskilde 817,907 7,217.8 113.32 17 (list)
Region Syddanmark Region of Southern Denmark Vejle Odense 1,201,342 12,191 98.02 22 (list)

Greenland and the Faroe Islands

Template:Further The Kingdom of Denmark is a unitary state, however the Faroe Islands and Greenland were granted home rule (political autonomy) in 1948 and 1979 respectively, having previously had the status of counties.[58][59] Extensive powers have been devolved to the Faroe Islands and Greenland, which have their own governments and legislatures and are effectively self-governing in regards to domestic affairs.[59] However, the devolved legislatures are subordinate to the Folketing where the two territories are represented by two seats each. High Commissioners (Template:Lang-da) act as representatives of the Danish government.[59]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Denmark
File:Sow with piglet.jpg

Denmark has a modern, prosperous and developed mixed market economy, ranking 21st in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) per capita and 10th in nominal GDP per capita. A liberalization of import tariffs in 1797 marked the end of mercantilism and further liberalization in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century established the Danish liberal tradition in international trade that was only to be broken by the 1930s.[61][62] Property rights have enjoyed strong protection. Denmark's economy stands out as one of the most free in the Index of Economic Freedom[63] and the Economic Freedom of the World.[64] The economy has high levels of international trade and Denmark is known as a free trade advocate in the European Union. Denmark is one of the most competitive economies in the world according to World Economic Forum 2008 report, IMD and The Economist.[65]

As a result of its acclaimed "flexicurity" model, Denmark has the most free labour market in Europe, according to the World Bank. Employers can hire and fire whenever they want (flexibility), and between jobs, unemployment compensation is very high (security). The World Bank ranks Denmark as the easiest place in Europe to do business. Establishing a business can be done in a matter of hours and at very low costs.[66] Denmark has a competitive company tax rate of 25% and a special time-limited tax regime for expatriates.[67] The Danish taxation system is broad based, with a 25% VAT, in addition to excise taxes, income taxes and other fees. The overall tax burden (sum of all taxes, as a percentage of GDP) is estimated to be 46% in 2011.[68]

Denmark has a labour force of about 2.9 million. Denmark has the fourth highest ratio of tertiary degree holders in the world.[69] GDP per hour worked was the 13th highest in 2009. Denmark has the world's lowest level of income inequality, according to the World Bank Gini (%),[70] and the world's highest minimum wage, according to the IMF.[71] As of June 2010 the unemployment rate is at 7.4%, which is below the EU average of 9.6%.[72]

Denmark's currency, the krone, is pegged at approximately 7.46 kroner per euro through the ERM. Although a September 2000 referendum rejected adopting the euro,[73] the country in practice follows the policies set forth in the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union and meets the economic convergence criteria needed to adopt the euro. The majority of the political parties in the parliament are for the euro, but as yet a new referendum has not been held, despite plans;[74] skepticism of the EU among Danish voters has historically been strong. Denmark is known for the Danish cooperative movement within among others farming, the food industry (Danish Crown), dairy production (Arla Foods), retailing (Brugsen), wind turbine cooperatives and co-housing associations.

File:Euro accession.svg

Support for free trade is high – in a 2007 poll 76% responded that globalisation is a good thing.[75] 70% of trade flows are inside the European Union. Denmark has the 9th highest export per capita in the world. Denmark's main exports are: industrial production/manufactured goods 73.3% (of which machinery and instruments were 21.4%, and fuels, chemicals, etc. 26%); agricultural products and others for consumption 18.7% (in 2009 meat and meat products were 5.5% of total export; fish and fish products 2.9%).[31] Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and has for a number of years had a balance of payments surplus while battling an equivalent of approximately 39% of GNP foreign debt or more than 300 billion DKK.[76]

StatBank is the name of a large statistical database maintained by the central authority of statistics in Denmark. Online distribution of statistics has been a part of the dissemination strategy in Denmark since 1985. By this service, Denmark is a leading country in the world regarding electronic dissemination of statistics. There are about 2 million hits every year.

Energy

File:DanishWindTurbines.jpg
Main article: Energy in Denmark

Denmark has considerable sources of oil and natural gas in the North Sea and ranks as number 32 in the world among net exporters of crude oil[77] and was producing 259,980 barrels of crude oil a day in 2009.[78] Most electricity is produced from coal, but 25–28% of electricity demand is supplied through wind turbines.[79] Denmark is a long-time leader in wind energy, and Template:As of Denmark derives 3.1% of its gross domestic product from renewable (clean) energy technology and energy efficiency, or around €6.5 billion ($9.4 billion).[80] Denmark is connected by electric transmission lines to other European countries. On 6 September 2012, Denmark launched the biggest wind turbine in the world, and adding four more the next four years.

Denmark's electricity sector has integrated fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources such as wind power into the national grid. Denmark now aims to focus on intelligent battery systems (V2G) and plug-in vehicles in the transport sector.[81][82]

Transport

Main article: Transport in Denmark
File:Copenhagen Airport Mai 2009 PD 131.JPG

Significant investment has been made in building road and rail links between regions in Denmark, most notably the Great Belt Fixed Link, which connects Zealand and Funen. It is now possible to drive from Frederikshavn in northern Jutland to Copenhagen on eastern Zealand without leaving the motorway. The main railway operator is DSB for passenger services and DB Schenker Rail for freight trains. The railway tracks are maintained by Banedanmark. Copenhagen has a small Metro system, the Copenhagen Metro, and the Greater Copenhagen area has an extensive electrified suburban railway network, the S-train. Denmark's national airline (together with Norway and Sweden) is Scandinavian Airlines (SAS), and Copenhagen Airport is the largest in Scandinavia. A ferry link to the Faroe Islands is maintained by Smyril Line. Other international ferry services are mainly operated by DFDS (to Norway and the UK), Scandlines (to Germany and Sweden), Stena Line (to Norway, Sweden, and Poland), Color Line (to Norway), and FjordLine (to Norway).

Private vehicles are increasingly used as a means of transport. Because of the high registration tax (180%), VAT (25%), and one of the world's highest income tax rates, new cars are very expensive. The purpose of the tax is to discourage car ownership. The car fleet has increased by 45% over the last 30 years. In 2007 an attempt was made by the government to favor environmentally friendly cars by slightly reducing taxes on high mileage vehicles. However, this has had little effect, and in 2008 Denmark experienced an increase in the import of fuel inefficient old cars[84] primarily from Germany, as the cost for older cars—including taxes—keeps them within the budget of many Danes. The average car age (year 2011) is 9.2 years.[85]

Bicycling in Denmark is a common form of transportation, particularly for the young and for city dwellers. With a network of bicycle routes extending more than 12,000 km[86] and an estimated 7,000 km[87] of segregated dedicated bicycle paths and lanes, Denmark has a solid bicycle infrastructure.

Technology

In the 20th century, Danes have also been innovative in several fields of the technology sector. Danish companies have been influential in the shipping industry with the design of the largest and most energy efficient container ships in the world, and Danish engineers have contributed to the design of MAN Diesel engines. In the software and electronic field, Denmark contributed to design and manufacturing of Nordic Mobile Telephones, and the now-defunct Danish company DanCall was among the first to develop GSM mobile phones.[88]

Danish engineers are world-leading in providing diabetes care equipment and medication products from Novo Nordisk and, since 2000, the Danish biotech company Novozymes, the world market leader in enzymes for first generation starch based bioethanol, has pioneered development of enzymes for converting waste to cellulosic ethanol.[89] Medicon Valley, spanning the Øresund Region between Zealand and Sweden, is one of Europe's largest life science clusters, containing a large number of life science companies and research institutions located within a very small geographical area. Danish software engineers have taken leading roles in some of the world's important programming languages: Anders Hejlsberg, (Turbo Pascal, Delphi, C#); Rasmus Lerdorf, (PHP); Bjarne Stroustrup, (C++); David Heinemeier Hansson, (Ruby on Rails); Lars Bak pioneer in virtual machines, (V8, Java VM, Dart;) Lene Vestergaard Hau (physicist) the first person to stop light, leading to advances in quantum computing, nanoscale engineering and linear optics.

Public policy

See also: Flexicurity

After deregulating the labour market in the 1990s, Denmark has one of the most free labour markets in European countries. According to World Bank labour market rankings, the labour market flexibility is at the same levels as the United States. Around 80% of employees belong to unions and the unemployment funds that are attached to them. Labour market policies are mainly determined in negotiations between the workers' unions and employers' unions, and the government only interferes if labour strikes extend for too long.

Despite the success of the trade unions, a growing number of people make contracts individually rather than collectively, and many (four out of ten employees) are contemplating dropping especially unemployment fund but occasionally even union membership altogether. The average employee receives a benefit at 47% of their wage level if they have to claim benefits when unemployed. With low unemployment, very few expect to be claiming benefits at all. The only reason then to pay the earmarked money to the unemployment fund would be to retire early and receive early retirement pay (efterløn), which is possible from the age of 60 provided an additional earmarked contribution is paid to the unemployment fund.[90]

The unemployment rate for December 2007 was 2.7%, for a total of 74,900 persons, a reduction by 112,800 persons—2,400 per month—or 60% since December 2003.[91] The Eurostat unemployment number for August 2008 is 2.9%. Another measure of the situation on the labour market is the employment rate, that is the percentage of people aged 15 to 64 in employment out of the total number of people aged 15 to 64. The employment rate for Denmark in 2007 was 77.1% according to Eurostat. Of all countries in the world, only Switzerland with 78.% and Iceland with 85.1% had a higher employment rate. Of the employed more than 38% (800,000 people)[92] of the total workforce work in public sector jobs.

The number of unemployed is forecast to be 65,000 in 2015. The number of people in the working age group, less disability pensioners etc., will grow by 10,000 to 2,860,000, and jobs by 70,000 to 2,790,000;[93] part-time jobs are included.[94] Because of the present high demand and short supply of skilled labour, for instance for factory and service jobs, including hospital nurses and physicians, the annual average working hours have risen, especially compared with the recession 1987–1993.[95] Increasingly, service workers of all kinds are in demand, i.e. in the postal services and as bus drivers, and academics.[96] In the fall of 2007, more than 250,000 foreigners are working in the country, of which 23,000 still reside in Germany or Sweden.[97] According to a sampling survey of over 14,000 enterprises from December 2007 to April 2008 39,000 jobs were not filled, a number much lower than earlier surveys, confirming a downturn in the economic cycle.[98]

The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment (the maximum benefit is at 90% of the wage) and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always—but need not be—administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. However, the largest share of the financing is still carried by the central government and is financed by general taxation, and only to a minor degree from earmarked contributions. There is no taxation, however, on proceeds gained from selling one´s home (provided there was any home equity (

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)), as the marginal tax rate on capital income from housing savings is around 0%.[99] In 2011, 13.4% of Denmark's population was reported to live below the poverty line.[100]

Denmark follows the Nordic model of a mixed economy, characterised by a large welfare state, a high level of public expenditure and a universal social system (including health care), financed by taxes and not by social contributions. The welfare model is accompanied by a taxation system that is both broad based (25% VAT, not including excise, duty and tax) and with a progressive income tax model, meaning the more money that is earned, the higher income tax percentage that gets paid (minimum tax rate for adults is 42% scaling to over 60%, except for the residents of Ertholmene that escape the otherwise ubiquitous 8% healthcare tax fraction of the income taxes[101][102]). Other taxes include the registration tax on private vehicles, at a rate of 180%, on top of VAT. Lately (July 2007) this has been changed slightly in an attempt to favor more fuel efficient cars but maintaining the average taxation level more or less unchanged.[103]

Demographics

File:Population of Denmark 1.January 2012 by ancestry and continents of origin..gif
File:Ærøskøbing 1.jpg

According to 2012 figures from Statistics Denmark, 89.6% of Denmark's population of over 5,580,516 is of Danish descent.[104] Many of the remaining 10.4% are immigrants—or descendants of recent immigrants—from neighbour countries, Turkey, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, South Asia and the Middle East. Of the 10.4%, approximately 200,000 (34%) are of a Western background, and approx. 390,000 (66%) have a non-Western background.[105]

The median age is 39.8 years, with 0.98 males per female. 98.2% of the population (age 15 and up) is literate. The birth rate is 1.74 children born per woman (2006 est.). Despite the low birth rate, the population is still growing at an average annual rate of 0.33%.[31] An international study conducted by Adrian White at Leicester University in 2006 showed that the population of Denmark had the highest life satisfaction in the world.[106]

Danish, Faroese, and Greenlandic are the official languages of mainland Denmark, the Faroes, and Greenland, respectively; German is an official minority language in the former South Jutland County near the German border. Danish is spoken throughout the kingdom and is the national language of Denmark. English and German are the most widely spoken foreign languages.[107]

Religion

Main article: Religion in Denmark
File:Roskilde mpazdziora.JPG
Church of Denmark
year population members percentage
1984 5,113,500 4,684,060 91.6%
1990 5,135,409 4,584,450 89.3%
2000 5,330,500 4,536,422 85.1%
2005 5,413,600 4,498,703 83.3%
2007 5,447,100 4,499,343 82.6%
2008 5,475,791 4,494,589 82.1%
2009 5,511,451 4,492,121 81.5%
2010 5,534,738 4,479,214 80.9%
2011 5,560.628 4,469,109 80.4%
statistical data 1984–2002,[108] 1990–2009[109] and 2010–2011.[110] Source Kirkeministeriet

According to official statistics from January 2011, 80.4%[110] of the population of Denmark are members of the Church of Denmark (

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), a Lutheran church that was made the Established Church and state religion by the Constitution.[111] This is down 0.6% compared to the year earlier and 1.2% down compared to two years earlier.[109][110] Despite the high membership figures, only 3% of the population regularly attend Sunday services.[112][113]

The Constitution states that a member of the Royal Family must be a part of the Established Church, though the rest of the population is free to adhere to other faiths.[114][115][116] In 1682 the state granted limited recognition to three religious groups dissenting from the Established Church: Roman Catholicism, the Reformed Church and Judaism,[116] although conversion to these groups from the Church of Denmark remained illegal initially. Until the 1970s, the state formally recognised "religious societies" by royal decree. Today, religious groups do not need official government recognition in Denmark, they can be granted the right to perform weddings and other ceremonies without this recognition.[116]

Denmark's Muslims make up approximately 3% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion.[112][117] As of 2009 there are nineteen recognised Muslim communities in Denmark.[117][118] As per an overview of various religions and denominations by the Danish Foreign Ministry, other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together.[119]

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[120] 28% of Danish citizens polled responded that they "believe there is a God", 47% responded that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2009, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world.[121]

A new religious group, Forn Siðr, describes itself as a revival of the Norse paganism prevalent in Denmark before Christianization. It gained state recognition in November 2003.[122]

Education

Main article: Education in Denmark
File:Copenhagen Rundetårn street left.jpg

The Danish education system provides access to primary school, secondary school and higher education. All college and university education in Denmark are free of charges; there are no tuition fees to enroll in courses. Students in secondary school or higher and aged 18 or above may apply for student support which provides fixed financial support, disbursed monthly. As of 2012 it is approximately 6000 DKR or $1000 pr. month.[123] The Education Index, published with the UN's Human Development Index in 2008, based on data from 2006, lists Denmark as 0.993, amongst the highest in the world, tied for first with Australia, Canada, Finland and New Zealand.[124]

Primary school in Denmark is called "Public School" (

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). Attendance at primary school is compulsory for a minimum of 10 years, from the age of 6 to 16. Pupils can alternatively attend "free schools" (

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), or private schools (

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) – schools that are not under the administration of the municipalities, such as Christian schools or Waldorf schools.

Following graduation from Public School, there are several other educational opportunities, including Gymnasium (academically oriented upper secondary education), Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) (similar to Gymnasium, but one year shorter), Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) (with focus on mathematics and engineering), and Higher Commercial Examination Programme (with a focus on trade and business), as well as vocational education, training young people for work in specific trades by a combination of teaching and apprenticeship.

Danish universities and other higher education institutions offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Denmark. Many programmes are taught in English, including Bachelor's, Master's, PhD, exchange and summer school programmes[125]

Health care

Along with Sweden and Norway, Denmark has a universal health care system, financed by taxes and not by social contributions. This system is largely financed through local (county and municipal) taxation with integrated funding and provision of health care at the local (county) level. It is the most important area of responsibility for the local regions. Unlike the former counties, the regions are not allowed to levy taxes, and the health service is primarily financed by a national health care contribution of 8 percent (Template:Lang-da) combined with funds from both government and municipalities.[56] Denmark spends 9.8 percent of GDP on healthcare. The life expectancy in Denmark is 78.6 years, and there is one doctor for every 294 persons in Denmark.[126]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Denmark
See also: Law of Jante and Scientific achievements of Danes
File:Krøyer Sommeraften Skagen Sønderstrand.jpg

Historically, Denmark, like its Scandinavian neighbors, has been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world. For example, in 1969, Denmark was the first country to legalise pornography,[127] and in 2012, Denmark replaced its "registered partnership" laws, which it had been the first country to introduce in 1989,[128][129] with gender-neutral marriage.[130][131] Modesty, punctuality but above all equality are important aspects of the Danish way of life.[132]

The astronomical discoveries of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), Ludwig A. Colding's (1815–1888) neglected articulation of the principle of conservation of energy, and the brilliant contributions to atomic physics of Niels Bohr (1885–1962) indicate the range of Danish scientific achievement. The fairy tales of Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875), the philosophical essays of Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), the short stories of Karen Blixen (penname Isak Dinesen), (1885–1962), the plays of Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754), and the dense, aphoristic poetry of Piet Hein (1905–1996), have earned international recognition, as have the symphonies of Carl Nielsen (1865–1931). From the mid-1990s, Danish films have attracted international attention, especially those associated with Dogme 95 like those of Lars Von Trier.

Architecture

File:Pv jensen-klint 05 grundtvig memorial church 1913-1940.jpg

Denmark's architecture became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, then Gothic churches and cathedrals sprang up throughout the country. From the 16th century, Dutch and Flemish designers were brought to Denmark, initially to improve the country's fortifications, but increasingly to build magnificent royal castles and palaces in the Renaissance style. During the 17th century, many impressive buildings were built in the Baroque style, both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism from France was slowly adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style.[133]

The 20th century brought along new architectural styles; including expressionism, best exemplified by the designs of architect Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint, which relied heavily on Scandinavian brick Gothic traditions; and Nordic Classicism, which enjoyed brief popularity in the early decades of the century. It was in the 1960s that Danish architects such as Arne Jacobsen entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalist architecture. This, in turn, has evolved into more recent world-class masterpieces including Jørn Utzon's Sydney Opera House and Johann Otto von Spreckelsen's Grande Arche de la Défense in Paris, paving the way for a number of contemporary Danish designers such as Bjarke Ingels to be rewarded for excellence both at home and abroad.[134]

Cuisine

Main article: Danish cuisine
File:Smørrebrød 4.jpg
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) on dark rye bread.]] The cuisine of Denmark, like that of the other Nordic countries and of Northern Germany, consists mainly of meat and fish. This stems from the country's agricultural past, its geography, and its climate of long, cold winters. With 145.9 kg of meat per person consumed in 2002, Denmark has the highest consumption of meat per person of any country in the world.[135]

The open sandwiches, known as smørrebrød, which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals traditionally consist of ground meats, such as frikadeller (meat balls), or of more substantial meat and fish dishes such as flæskesteg (roast pork with crackling) or kogt torsk (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings. Denmark is known for its Carlsberg and Tuborg beers and for its akvavit and bitters although imported wine is now gaining popularity.

Danish chefs, inspired by continental practices, have in recent years developed an innovative series of gourmet dishes based on high-quality local produce. As a result, Copenhagen and the provinces now have a considerable number of highly acclaimed restaurants of which several have been awarded Michelin stars.

Design

File:The Swan&The Egg.jpg
Main article: Danish design

Danish design is a term often used to describe a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century, originating in Denmark. Danish design is typically applied to industrial design, furniture and household objects, which have won many international awards.

The Danish Porcelain Factory ("Royal Copenhagen") is famous for the quality of its ceramics and export products worldwide. Danish design is also a well-known brand, often associated with world-famous designers and architects such as Børge Mogensen (1914–1972), Finn Juhl (1912–1989), Hans Wegner (1914–2007), Arne Jacobsen (1902–1971), Poul Kjærholm (1929–1980), Poul Henningsen (1894–1967) and Verner Panton (1926–1998).[136] Georg Jensen (1866–1935) is noted for his modern design in silver.

Other designers of note include Kristian Solmer Vedel (1923–2003) in the area of industrial design, Jens Harald Quistgaard (1919–2008) for kitchen furniture and implements and Ole Wanscher (1903–1985) who had a classical approach to furniture design.

Literature and philosophy

Main article: Danish literature

The first known Danish literature is myths and folklore from the 10th and 11th century. Saxo Grammaticus, normally considered the first Danish writer, worked for bishop Absalon on a chronicle of Danish history (Gesta Danorum). Very little is known of other Danish literature from the Middle Ages. With the Age of Enlightenment came Ludvig Holberg whose comedy plays are still being performed.

File:Constantin Hansen 1836 - HC Andersen.jpg

In the late 19th century, literature was seen as a way to influence society. Known as the Modern Breakthrough, this movement was championed by Georg Brandes, Henrik Pontoppidan (awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature) and J. P. Jacobsen. Romanticism influenced the renowned writer and poet Hans Christian Andersen, known for his stories and fairy tales, e.g. The Ugly Duckling, The Little Mermaid and The Snow Queen. In recent history Johannes Vilhelm Jensen was also awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Karen Blixen is famous for her novels and short stories. Other Danish writers of importance are Gustav Wied, William Heinesen, Martin Andersen Nexø, Piet Hein, Hans Scherfig, Klaus Rifbjerg, Dan Turéll, Tove Ditlevsen, Inger Christensen and Peter Høeg.

Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who later in his life moved on to join the movement of positivism. Among Kierkegaard's other followers include Jean-Paul Sartre who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, and Rollo May, who helped create humanistic psychology. Another Danish philosopher of note is Grundtvig, whose philosophy gave rise to a new form of non-aggressive nationalism in Denmark, and who is also influential for his theological and historical works.

Media

Danish mass media is dominated by a few large corporations. In printed media JP/Politikens Hus and Berlingske Media, between them, control the largest news papers Politiken, Berlingske Tidende and Jyllands-Posten and major tabloids B.T. and Ekstra Bladet. In television, publicly owned stations DR and TV 2 have large shares of the viewers.[137] In radio, DR has a near monopoly, currently broadcasting on all four nationally available FM channels, competing only with local stations. The mainstream media is still very much dominant in Denmark, but the share of Danes going online for news is steadily growing.

Danish cinema dates back to 1897 and since the 1980s has maintained a steady stream of product due largely to funding by the state-supported Danish Film Institute. The three big internationally important waves of Danish cinema have been the erotic melodrama of the silent era, the increasingly explicit sex films of the 1960s and 1970s, and lastly, the Dogme 95 movement of the late 1990s. Danish films have been noted for their realism, religious and moral themes, sexual frankness and technical innovation. The Danish filmmaker Carl Th. Dreyer (1889–1968) is considered one of the greatest directors in the history of cinema.[138]

Other Danish filmmakers of note include the creator of the popular Olsen-banden films Erik Balling; Gabriel Axel, an Oscar-winner for Babette's Feast in 1987; and Bille August, the Oscar-, Palme d'Or- and Golden Globe-winner for Pelle the Conqueror in 1988. In the modern era, notable filmmakers in Denmark include Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme film movement, and multiple award-winners Susanne Bier and Nicolas Winding Refn.

Music

Main article: Music of Denmark
Carl Nielsen
Wind Quintet, Op. 43
1st movement
120px

Copenhagen and its multiple outlying islands have a wide range of folk traditions. The Royal Danish Orchestra is among the world's oldest orchestras. Denmark's most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen, especially remembered for his six symphonies and his Wind Quintet, while the Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of Danish choreographer August Bournonville. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation.

Victor Borge, Danish comedian and musician, achieved world renown in stage, radio and television appearances spanning 60 years, with his unique blend of comedy and piano playing.

In the early days of rock and beat, some[who?] Danish artists quickly adapted this new type of music with success and jazz's popularity waned. The modern pop and rock scene has produced a few names of note, including Aqua, D-A-D, Dizzy Mizz Lizzy, The Raveonettes, Michael Learns to Rock, Alphabeat, Medina, Oh Land, Kashmir, Mew and Dúné. All together, Lars Ulrich, drummer of the band Metallica, has become the first Danish musician to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Painting and photography

File:C W Eckersberg 1841 - Kvinde foran et spejl.jpg

While Danish art was influenced over the centuries by trends in Germany and the Netherlands, the 15th and 16th century church frescos which can be seen in many of the country's older churches are of particular interest as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters.[139]

The Danish Golden Age, which began in the first half of the 19th century, was inspired by a new feeling of nationalism and romanticism. Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was not only a productive artist in his own right but taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where his students included notable painters such as Wilhelm Bendz, Christen Købke, Martinus Rørbye, Constantin Hansen, and Wilhelm Marstrand. The sculpture of Bertel Thorvaldsen was also significant during this period.[140]

In 1871, Holger Drachmann and Karl Madsen visited Skagen in the far north of Jutland where they quickly built up one of Scandinavia's most successful artists' colonies specializing in Naturalism and Realism rather than in the traditional approach favored by the Academy. Hosted by Michael and his wife Anna, they were soon joined by P.S. Krøyer, Carl Locher and Laurits Tuxen. All participated in painting the natural surroundings and local people.[141] Similar trends developed on Funen with the Fynboerne who included Johannes Larsen, Fritz Syberg and Peter Hansen,[142] and on the island of Bornholm with the Bornholm school of painters including Niels Lergaard, Kræsten Iversen and Oluf Høst.[143]

Danish photography has developed from strong participation and interest in the very beginnings of the art in 1839 to the success of a considerable number of Danes in the world of photography today. Pioneers such as Mads Alstrup and Georg Emil Hansen paved the way for a rapidly growing profession during the last half of the 19th century while both artistic and press photographers made internationally recognised contributions. Today Danish photographers such as Astrid Kruse Jensen and Jacob Aue Sobol are active both at home and abroad, participating in key exhibitions around the world.[144]

Collections of modern art enjoy unusually attractive settings at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art north of Copenhagen and at the North Jutland Art Museum in Aalborg. Notable artists include the Neo-Expressionist Per Kirkeby, Tal R with his wild and colorful paintings,[145] Olafur Eliasson's space exhibitions[146] and Jeppe Hein's installations.[147]

Sports

Main article: Sport in Denmark
File:US Open 2009 4th round 156.jpg

Sports are popular in Denmark, and its citizens participate in and watch a wide variety. The national sport is football (soccer). Denmark qualified six times in a row between 1984 and 2004 for the European Championships, and won the Championship in 1992. Other significant achievements include winning the Confederations Cup in 1995 and reaching the quarter-final of the 1998 World Championships. Notable Danish footballers include Peter Schmeichel, named the "World's Best Goalkeeper" in 1992 and 1993, and Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish player of all time by the Danish Football Association.[148]

In recent years, Denmark has made a mark as a strong cycling nation, with Bjarne Riis winning Tour de France in 1996 and Michael Rasmussen reaching King of the Mountains status in the Tour in 2005 and 2006. In speedway racing Denmark has won several world championships, including the Speedway World Cup in 2006 and 2008.

Other popular sports include golf—which is mostly popular among those in the older demographic;[149] tennis—in which Denmark is successful on a professional level; rugby—the Danish Rugby Union dates back to 1950;[150] rowing—Denmark specialize in light-weight rowing and are particularly known for their light-weight coxless four, having won six gold and two silver World Championship medals and three gold and two bronze Olympic medals; and several indoor sports—especially badminton, handball, table tennis and gymnastics, in each of which Denmark holds World Championships and Olympic medals. Denmark's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, and many other water-themed sports.

Template:As of, the national handball team are the current reigning European champions. On the men's side, they have won five medals—two gold (in 2008 and 2012) and three bronze (in 2002, 2004 and 2006)--the most that have been won by any team in European Championship history.

See also


Notes

Template:Notelist

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