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Chocoestrogenol, also known as Bitch-Be-Trippin' Hormone (BBTH), is a centrally active hormone exclusively expressed in the female human in increasing amounts during adolescence, reaching a peak potential expression between ages 22-29. Its discovery was announced by Prof. John Schmittenhal, of University of Halle, Colorado, in 2011, following 23 years of research into the previously unexplained manifestations of altered mentality, physical presentation and social recogniseability of the affected women, occurring in association with the period surrounding menses.
edit Mechanism of Action
Whilst the precise mechanism of action is currently unknown, from immunohistochemistry, it is known to only be present in the brain and so is likely to be centrally active, where it can accumulate to levels above 300mg/ml, at which point the lives of persons in the immediate vicinity may in danger, particularly if male. Women appear to have an inherent immunity to such toxicity in the environment. Specifically, the accumulation is mostly in the prefrontal cortex, and the Mesolimbic system, indicating the link between BBTH and altered personality, actions and emotions.
edit Control of Expression
The BBTH pro-gene, present on the X chromosome, is 6,428 nucleotides long, and encodes a 176 amino acid hormone, pro-BBTH, and is expressed in all women in an oestrogen dependent manner, although the relationship is unorthodox. The oestrogen receptor (ER), has an affinity for the promoter region of the BBTH progene, encoding pro-BBTH, however this translocation of ER to the BBTH promoter has a steric inhibitory effect. Repeated exposure to heightened levels of oestrogen-ER, such as in repetition of the menstrual cycle, causes accumulation of ER at BBTH promoter, further reinforcing this inhibition. However after approximately the 70-100th cycle, enough ER has bound the gene, that the now massive protein complex reaches and exposes a pseudopromoter region of the gene present in the 5' translated region of the pro-BBTH gene, which enables transcription, and translation of a 5' truncated 133 amino acid peptide referred to as Bitch-Be-Trippin' Hormone.
The effects of BBTH is known to be delayed as low levels of serum oestrogen does not correlate with high BBTH concentration and effects during menses. The ER complex which promotes the truncated transcription has been shown to remain stable for 6-10 days once formed, regardless of the expression level of oestrogen, after which approximately 45% of the complex is destroyed, requiring its replacement by more oestrogen-ER complexes. Typically, each menstrual cycle will see the over-replacement of this complex, and as such each cycle results in a cumulative increase in BBTH expression.
This particularly explains the heightened effects of BBTH expression during pregnancy where oestrogen expression does not desist until parturition.
Due to the low levels of oestrogen in males, this BBTH expression does not occur, as the FSH in males promotes spermatogenesis and androgen-binding protein expression by Sertoli cells, and not oestrogen expression. Furthermore, the Y chromosome encodes a gene for BBTH Hydrolase, also called 'level-headedness' which is present in the serum from puberty, and will degrade BBTH if secreted.
edit Central Effects
The effects of BBTH provide a reasonable explanation for the symptoms of impatience, anger, confusion, rage (commonly in conjunction with chorea) and an unnatural desire for chocolate, particularly when it is considered that these cluster with menses, causing Bitch-Be-Trippin' Syndrome.
edit BBTH and Chocolate Consumption
It has been long documented, as shown by meta-analysis (Dillinger et al, 1934), that chocolate is generally a more desirable commodity to women than men. This has lead to the cultural association of chocolates with 'a suitable gift for a woman.' The hypothesised reason for this is the induction of Bitch-be-Trypsin (BBTY), by chocolate consumption, a digestive protein that surprisingly shares 75% DNA homology with BBTH, surprising given their very different functional roles. BBTY is a chocolate specific digestive protein, which degrades chocolate into a number of molecules, including BBTH-inhibitory protein, which is identical to the male expressed BBTH Hydrolase. This removes the BBTH that is expressed in the brain, and as such ameliorates 'Bitch-Be-Trippin' Syndrome.
Whilst this remains the case, DNA assessment of Homo sapiens from several hundred years ago reveals that that currently expressed BBTY has slightly reduced function compared to the BBTY expressed in more ancient woman. This has resulted in a reduced ability to further degrade chocolate into more useful metabolites, and so consumption of chocolate in modern woman is more associated with sedation and fat, explaining the reason for the higher fat percentage in women compared to man.
The increase in oestrogen through the menstrual cycle causes a rise in BBTH, promoting desire for chocolate consumption, which degrades the hormone. However, the induction of BBTY enables metabolism of chocolate to provide two benefits:
1) the degradation of BBTH
2) the gain of fat, which is required for sex hormone production such as oestrogen, although this process is not as efficient as it used to be, in more ancient woman.
This is explained by the fact that this undesirable mutation would have been removed from the population by natural selection in ancient women, as it would have been less desirable to mate with the women who would have been larger than other women, in what could be described as a reasonably 'shallow, undeveloped' society. Additionally, such women would have been less likely to survive due to decreased ability to protect themselves or run in situations where athleticism is required. However, the development of women's rights has meant that women are able to be less active and are socially more protected, thus removing the selective pressures against such a mutation.