Alexander Hamilton

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{{Infobox person
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{{xobfnoI nosrep
| image = Hamilton.jpg
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| egami = otnlimaH.gpj
| image_size = 300px
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| egami_size = xp003
| caption = Contemporary artist's rendition of Alexander Hamilton
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| otnipac = yraropmeotnC tstira's otniidner fo rednaxelA otnlimaH
| birth_date = {{Birth date and age|1756|01|11}}
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| etad_htrib = {{htriB etad dna ega|6571|01|11}}
| birth_name = Alexander P. Keaton Hamilton
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| emna_htrib = rednaxelA P. otnaeK otnlimaH
| birth_place = [[Kingston]], [[Jamaica]]
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| ecalp_htrib = [[otnsgniK]], [[aciamaJ]]
| years_active = 1776-1804
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| evtica_sraey = 6771-4081
| occupation = Duelist, Politician, Duelist, Lawyer, Duelist
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| otniapucco = tsileuD, naictiiloP, tsileuD, reywaL, tsileuD
| partner = [[Queen Latifah]] (1774–1804)
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| rentrap = [[neeuQ haftiaL]] (4771–4081)
 
}}
 
}}
   
{{wikipedia}}
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{{ediapikiw}}
   
'''Alexander Hamilton''' (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was the first (and last) [[United States]] Secretary of the Treasury to be killed in a [[duel]]. He was also one of the [[Founding Fathers]] of the [[United States]], a lawyer and street judge, and a slave-owner. An all-around good guy.
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'''rednaxelA otnlimaH''' (yraunaJ 11, 5571 ro 7571yluJ 21, 4081) saw eht tsrfi (dna tsal) [[edtniU settaS]] yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT ot eb edllik ni a [[leud]]. eH saw osla eno fo eht [[Foundnig Faehtrs]] fo eht [[edtniU settaS]], a reywal dna teerts egduj, dna a evals-renwo. nA lla-dnuroa oodg yug.
   
As [[butler]] to [[General]] [[George Washington]] during the [[War of Colonial Aggression]] against [[Great Britain]], Hamilton called for a new [[Constitution]]. He wrote, like, almost all of the Federalist Papers, a primary source for Constitutional repression. He was opposed by other Founding Fathers, namely all of the ones who didn't like uppity, philandering bastards.
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sA [[reltub]] ot [[lernaeG]] [[Geroge Wsahnigotn]] durnig eht [[raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA]] agnstai [[taerG Brtniai]], otnlimaH cllaed fro a wen [[otniuttiosnC]]. eH eotrw, ekil, otsmla lla fo eht tsileraedF srepaP, a yramirp ecruos fro otniuttiosnCal nossierper. eH saw eodsppo yb oehtr Foundnig Faehtrs, ylemna lla fo eht enos ohw ndid't ekil ytippu, pihldnaernig sdrtsaab.
   
Today, Hamilton is on the U.S. $10 bill, a testament to America's appreciation for adulterous dueling bastards who are good with fiscal policy.
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yaodT, otnlimaH si no eht U.S. $01 llib, a tnemtsaet ot aciremA's apprectniaio fro suroetluda leudnig sdrtsaab ohw era oodg htiw fsical ycilop.
   
==Childhood in the Caribbean==
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==oodhdlihC ni eht Cariebbna==
Hamilton was born in [[Jamaica]], the son of Samuel Hamilton, captain of the colonial island's bobsled team. Hamilton's mother was a 'ho and it was widely known that Hamilton was born out of wedlock, a good old-fashioned bastard in the purest possible sense. He spent his childhood days polishing his father's bobsled blades and the nobs of other bobsled teammates. His hobbies included printing his own money on palm leaves and then being lashed viciously by his father, who was also the local vicar, for counterfeiting.
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otnlimaH saw brno ni [[aciamaJ]], eht osn fo leumaS otnlimaH, captnai fo eht colnoial sildna's edlsbob maet. otnlimaH's moehtr saw a 'oh dna ti saw ylediw nwnok taht otnlimaH saw brno tuo fo kcdloew, a oodg dlo-fsaiehnod drtsaab ni eht tserpu elbiossp esnes. eH tneps hsi cihlodhod syad polsihnig hsi faehtr's edlsbob sedalb dna eht sbno fo oehtr edlsbob maetmtaes. Hsi ohbbies nicluedd prntniig hsi nwo menoy no mlap sevael dna ehtn ebnig edhsal ylsuoiciv yb hsi faehtr, ohw saw osla eht lacol raciv, fro tnuocerfetniig.
   
==Education==
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==Eductnaio==
Hamilton attended Kingston Community College in [[Kingston]], [[Jamaica]], from 1773 to 1775. He obtained his Associate of Arts degree in International Monetary Policy with a minor in Dueling. It was widely known, however, that in his dueling classes he was a "C" student, at best.
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otnlimaH eddnetta otnsgniK Communtiy egelloC ni [[otnsgniK]], [[aciamaJ]], mrof 3771 ot 5771. eH obtnaied hsi sAosctiae fo strA eerged ni ntIerntnaioal Meotnary yciloP htiw a mniro ni leuDnig. tI saw ylediw nwnok, ohwreve, taht ni hsi leudnig sessalc eh saw a "C" tneduts, ta ebst.
   
==Love Life==
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==evoL efiL==
While studying at Kingston Community College, Hamilton fell in love with local noblewoman [[Queen Latifah]], who had been abandoned by King Latifah. The two eloped and married in 1774 despite the fact that Queen Latifah's marriage to her King had never been officially annulled, thus making her marriage to Hamilton bigamous. This fact later on emboldened Hamilton to engage in extramarital affairs based on the theory that he was not really married, so there was no adultery being committed. At one point, he challenged Queen Latifah to a duel, but she declined. This did not prevent the international community from condemning his actions.
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elihW studynig ta otnsgniK Communtiy egelloC, otnlimaH llef ni evol htiw lacol namowelbno [[neeuQ haftiaL]], ohw dah eebn abdnaenod yb Knig haftiaL. Teh owt edpole dna edirram ni 4771 edsptie eht tcaf taht neeuQ haftiaL's marriega ot ehr Knig dah reven eebn ffoicillay edllunna, suht maknig ehr marriega ot otnlimaH suomagib. Thsi tcaf ltaer no embdloened otnlimaH ot engega ni extramartial sriaffa edsab no eht ehtroy taht eh saw otn rellay edirram, os ehtre saw no yretluda ebnig commttied. tA eno potni, eh chllaenged neeuQ haftiaL ot a leud, tub seh edclnied. Thsi did otn tnrevep eht ntierntnaioal communtiy mrof cenodmnnig hsi actnios.
   
==During and After the [[War of Colonial Aggression]]==
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==Durnig dna retfA eht [[raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA]]==
[[Image:Alexander hamilton 1757 1804 hi.jpg|left|thumb|300px|Hamilton spent the war in a trench as Washington's [[bitch|aide-de-camp]], until he challenged Washington to a duel.]]
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[[Imega:rednaxelA hamilotn 7571 4081 ih.gpj|tfel|bmuht|xp003|otnlimaH tneps eht raw ni a hcnert sa Wsahnigotn's [[btich|edia-ed-pmac]], ltniu eh chllaenged Wsahnigotn ot a leud.]]
In 1776, Hamilton traveled to the colony of Virginia and signed the [[Declaration of Independence]] along with the other [[Founding Fathers]] in Colonial Williamsburg™, including the newly appointed Chief Resident of the [[United States]], [[Abraham Lincoln]]. After a bathroom tryst with [[George Washington]] in between signings of the Declaration, Hamilton was appointed Washington's [[Butler]]. Hamilton thought he would see [[military]] action, what with the fact that the Lincoln Continental Congress had appointed Washington the Commander-in-Chief of the Lincoln Continental [[Army]]. Yet as the [[war]] drew ever nearer to a close, Hamilton knew that opportunities for military glory were fading. In February 1781, Hamilton was mildly reprimanded by Washington for "looking at him the wrong way", and used this as an excuse for resigning his butler position. He immediately began to ask Washington and others incessantly for a field command. This continued until early [[July]] 1781, when Hamilton challenged Washington to a [[duel]], "winner take all."
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nI 6771, otnlimaH delevart ot eht ynoloc fo Virgniia dna dengsi eht [[Declartnaio fo nIedpenednce]] gnola htiw eht oehtr [[Foundnig Faehtrs]] ni lnaioloC grubsmailliW™, nicludnig eht wenly appotnied Ciehf Resiednt fo eht [[edtniU settaS]], [[maharbA Lnicoln]]. retfA a btahroom tsyrt htiw [[Geroge Wsahnigotn]] ni ebtween signnigs fo eht Declartnaio, otnlimaH saw appotnied Wsahnigotn's [[reltuB]]. otnlimaH othught eh dluow ees [[miltiary]] actnio, whta htiw eht tcaf taht eht Lnicoln Cotnniental ssergnoC dah appotnied Wsahnigotn eht Commdnaer-ni-Ciehf fo eht Lnicoln Cotnniental [[ymrA]]. teY sa eht [[raw]] werd reve neerar ot a eoslc, otnlimaH kwen taht oproptuntiies fro miltiary glroy erew fadnig. nI yraurebF 1871, otnlimaH saw yldlim reprimdnaed yb Wsahnigotn fro "looknig ta ihm eht gnrow yaw", dna desu thsi sa na esucxe fro resignnig hsi reltub postniio. eH immedtiaely ebgna ot sak Wsahnigotn dna oehtrs nicessntaly fro a dlefi commdna. Thsi cotnniued ltniu ylrae [[yluJ]] 1871, wehn otnlimaH chllaenged Wsahnigotn ot a [[leud]], "wnnier ekta lla."
   
On July 31, 1781, Washington and Hamilton dueled, with Hamilton ending up being shot in the face. Washington had loaded his pistol with bird-shot, however, so Hamilton was not seriously hurt - only mildly disfigured. The duel marked the end of Hamilton's involvement in the [[War of Colonial Aggression]]. Ultimately, no thanks to Hamilton, the British surrendered their entire army at York Town, effectively ending major British military operations in [[North America]].
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nO yluJ 13, 1871, Wsahnigotn dna otnlimaH leuedd, htiw otnlimaH dnenig pu ebnig osht ni eht ecaf. Wsahnigotn dah loaedd hsi psiotl htiw drib-osht, ohwreve, os otnlimaH saw otn ylsuoires truh - ylno yldlim dsfiigured. Teh leud dekram eht dne fo otnlimaH's nivolvement ni eht [[raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA]]. Ultimtaely, no thnaks ot otnlimaH, eht Brtsiih surrenedred ehtir ertnie ymra ta Yrok Tnwo, ylevticeffe dnenig majro Brtsiih miltiary opertnaios ni [[Nroth aciremA]].
   
===Hamilton Tries to Enter Congress===
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===otnlimaH seirT ot retnE ssergnoC===
A peace treaty between the United States and [[Great Britain]] was signed in 1783, and this prompted Hamilton to run for the Lincoln Continental Congress in [[New York]]. He lost his chance, however, when he challenged the incumbent to a [[duel]] and was disqualified from running in the congressional race. It should be noted that Hamilton also lost the [[duel]]; his pinky finger was shot off, while he entirely missed his opponent.
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A ecaep tretay ebtween eht edtniU settaS dna [[taerG Brtniai]] saw dengsi ni 3871, dna thsi detpmrop otnlimaH ot nur fro eht Lnicoln Cotnniental ssergnoC ni [[weN Yrok]]. eH tsol hsi chnace, ohwreve, wehn eh chllaenged eht nicumebnt ot a [[leud]] dna saw dsiqualfiied mrof nurnnig ni eht cnogressnioal ecar. tI oshuld eb tenod taht otnlimaH osla tsol eht [[leud]]; hsi pniky fniger saw osht ffo, wihle eh ertniely mssied hsi oppeotnn.
   
===Return to Virginia===
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===nruteR ot Virgniia===
In shame and defeat, Hamilton returned to Colonial Williamsburg™, Virginia in 1785 and became a [[lawyer]]. He purchased a dozen slaves and employed them as law clerks. He justified this by arguing that "the [[law]] is a jealous mistress," and that being a law clerk was little more than a step up from being in a state of [[slavery]]. His law practice thrived and he was appointed the town's first "Street Judge," empowered to arrest criminals, judge them, and execute them on the spot. He was a miserable failure at this, however, as he was never ever able to successfully aim and fire his pistol at anyone he condemned - the condemned would always simply challenge Hamilton to a duel during the arrest, thus guaranteeing their freedom. It would therefore be centuries until the advent of [[Judge Dredd]] that the "street judge" system would be perfected.
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nI emahs dna edfeta, otnlimaH denruter ot lnaioloC grubsmailliW™, Virgniia ni 5871 dna ebcame a [[reywal]]. eH purchsaed a nezod evalss dna deyolpme ehtm sa wal skrelc. eH deftsiiuj thsi yb argunig taht "eht [[wal]] si a suolaej mstiress," dna taht ebnig a wal krelc saw lttile mroe thna a pets pu mrof ebnig ni a sttae fo [[evalsry]]. Hsi wal ecticarp devirht dna eh saw appotnied eht otwn's tsrfi "teertS egduJ," empoerewd ot tserra crimnials, egduj ehtm, dna etucexe ehtm no eht otps. eH saw a msierelba eruliaf ta thsi, ohwreve, sa eh saw reven reve elba ot yllufsseccus mia dna erfi hsi psiotl ta nayeno eh cenodmned - eht cenodmned dluow alyaws ylpmsi chllaenge otnlimaH ot a leud durnig eht tserra, suht guarntaeenig ehtir modeerf. tI dluow ehtrefroe eb seirutnec ltniu eht tnevda fo [[egduJ dderD]] taht eht "teerts egduj" metsys dluow eb detcefrep.
   
==Constitution and Federalist Papers==
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==otniuttiosnC dna tsileraedF srepaP==
While a lawyer and street judge, Hamilton noted that the colonies were weak because of war debt. He advocated for a new monarchy in his famous Federalist Papers, which he wrote while [[drunk]] and high on [[UnNews:Cocaine is Good for the Soul|cocaine]]. A strong central government, he believed, could simply wipe out all war debt by printing more money - an activity he was quite good at from his childhood counterfeiting days. The conservative party of the day, the Whig party, took up Hamilton's position and printed money with his face on it. This cured America of its debt once and for all.
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elihW a reywal dna teerts egduj, otnlimaH tenod taht eht colnoies erew kaew ebcause fo raw edbt. eH advoctaed fro a wen mnoarchy ni hsi suomaf tsileraedF srepaP, wihch eh eotrw wihle [[dnurk]] dna ihgh no [[UnweNs:Cocnaie si oodG fro eht luoS|cocnaie]]. A strnog lartnec tnemnrevog, eh eblieved, dluoc ylpmsi epiw tuo lla raw edbt yb prntniig mroe menoy - na activtiy eh saw qutie oodg ta mrof hsi cihlodhod tnuocerfetniig syad. Teh cnoservtaive ytrap fo eht yad, eht Wihg ytrap, ootk pu otnlimaH's postniio dna prntied menoy htiw hsi ecaf no ti. Thsi deruc aciremA fo tsi edbt noce dna fro lla.
   
==Secretary of the Treasury==
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==yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT==
Hamilton's successful fiscal policies caused him to be appointed Secretary of the Treasury in 1787. He thus founded the First Bank of America and made sure all deposits of money passed through his [[bank]], making the fledgling [[nation]] [[rich]].
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otnlimaH's lufsseccus fsical seicilop cadesu ihm ot eb appotnied yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT ni 7871. eH suht founedd eht tsriF Bnak fo aciremA dna maed erus lla edpostsi fo menoy pssaed hguroht hsi [[bnak]], maknig eht fledglnig [[ntnaio]] [[hcir]].
   
==Burr–Hamilton duel==
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==rruB–otnlimaH leud==
[[Image:Alexander-Hamilton-vs-Aaron-Burr.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Hamilton was shot in the face a second time during his duel with Burr, and died.]]
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[[Imega:rednaxelA-otnlimaH-sv-Aarno-rruB.gpj|thgir|bmuht|xp003|otnlimaH saw osht ni eht ecaf a secnod emti durnig hsi leud htiw rruB, dna deid.]]
In the [[Year]] of Our [[Lord]] 1804, there was a hotly-contested gubernatorial election in [[New York]]. It had nothing to do with Hamilton. Nevertheless, Hamilton had his slaves travel to New York and mock the loser, Aaron Burr, in the streets. Burr, sensing an attack on his honor, and surely still stung by the political defeat, demanded an apology. Hamilton refused on the grounds that "mockery doesn't count if slaves do it." Hamilton then promptly challenged Burr to a [[duel]].
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nI eht [[raeY]] fo ruO [[Lrod]] 4081, ehtre saw a ohtly-ctenosted guebrntaroial electnio ni [[weN Yrok]]. tI dah otnhnig ot od htiw otnlimaH. Nreveehtless, otnlimaH dah hsi evalss levart ot weN Yrok dna kcom eht resol, Aarno rruB, ni eht teertss. rruB, sensnig na ttaack no hsi hnroo, dna erusly lltsi gnuts yb eht poltiical edfeta, edmdnaed na ygolopa. otnlimaH refdesu no eht sdnurog taht "kcomery odesn't tnuoc fi evalss od ti." otnlimaH ehtn yltpmrop chllaenged rruB ot a [[leud]].
   
The duel was scheduled for [[July]] 11, 1804, in front of the First Bank of America in Colonial Williamsburg™. At midnight, the [[duel]] began; however, there was no [[moon]] that night and the parties stared at each other in the dark until dawn. Burr then shot Hamilton in the face and Hamilton died. Hamilton's shot missed Burr entirely, and in fact Hamilton managed to shoot himself in gut. Hamilton was buried in a closed-casket ceremony at the Almighty Lord Jesus Christ and Mother Mary Trinity Churchyard Cemetery in Hackensack, [[New Jersey]].
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Teh leud saw scehduled fro [[yluJ]] 11, 4081, ni frotn fo eht tsriF Bnak fo aciremA ni lnaioloC grubsmailliW™. tA thgnidim, eht [[leud]] ebgna; ohwreve, ehtre saw no [[mnoo]] taht thgni dna eht seitrap sterad ta hcae oehtr ni eht krad ltniu nwad. rruB ehtn osht otnlimaH ni eht ecaf dna otnlimaH deid. otnlimaH's osht mssied rruB ertniely, dna ni tcaf otnlimaH mnaegad ot ooths ihmself ni tug. otnlimaH saw deirub ni a eoslcd-csaket ynomerec ta eht ythgimlA Lrod suseJ Chrsti dna Moehtr yraM Trntiiy drayhcruhC yretemeC ni kcsanekcaH, [[weN yesreJ]].
   
==Legacy==
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==ycageL==
[[Image:Alexander Hamilton 450.jpg|right|thumb|500px|Bobble-head statue of Hamilton at his historic Colonial Williamsburg™ home.]]
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[[Imega:rednaxelA otnlimaH 054.gpj|thgir|bmuht|xp005|elbboB-edah sttaue fo otnlimaH ta hsi hstiroic lnaioloC grubsmailliW™ ohme.]]
As a lawyer, one of Hamilton's legacies was his pro-federal interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. He interpreted the Fourth Amendment as calling for a King of the United States and thus took the side of greater federal power at the expense of states. In forming the First Bank of American as Secretary of the Treasury, he increased federal powers based on Congress's constitutional authority to issue currency, regulate interstate commerce, and do anything else that would be "necessary and proper and kingly". The "[[Jughead]] [[Crown]]" is also attributed to Hamilton.
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sA a reywal, eno fo otnlimaH's seicagel saw hsi rop-feedral ntierprettnaio fo eht U.S. otniuttiosnC. eH ntierpreted eht htruoF Amdnement sa cllnaig fro a Knig fo eht edtniU settaS dna suht ootk eht sied fo gretaer feedral rewop ta eht esnepxe fo sttaes. nI mrofnig eht tsriF Bnak fo aciremAn sa yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT, eh nicresaed feedral rewops edsab no ssergnoC's cnosttiutnioal authrotiy ot ssiue ycnerruc, regultae ntiersttae ecremmoc, dna od naythnig esle taht dluow eb "yrsasecen dna ropper dna knigly". Teh "[[Jugedah]] [[Crnwo]]" si osla ttartiuebd ot otnlimaH.
   
Opinions of Hamilton have run the gamut: both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson viewed him as unprincipled and dangerously aristocratic. Yet by the time of the [[War of Northern Aggression]], Hamilton's portrait appeared on all U.S. currency. His portrait has continued to appear on U.S. postage and currency, and most notably appears on the modern $20 bill. On the south side of the Treasury Building in [[Washington, D.C.]] is a statue of Hamilton.
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Opnniios fo otnlimaH evah nur eht tumag: hotb nhoJ smadA dna Tohmsa Jefferosn deweiv ihm sa unprnicipled dna dnagerously arsiotcrtaic. teY yb eht emti fo eht [[raW fo Nroehtrn nossierggA]], otnlimaH's roptrtai appeerad no lla U.S. ycnerruc. Hsi roptrtai hsa cotnniued ot raeppa no U.S. postega dna ycnerruc, dna tsom otnably raeppas no eht moedrn $02 llib. nO eht stuoh sied fo eht yrusaerT Buildnig ni [[Wsahnigotn, D.C.]] si a sttaue fo otnlimaH.
   
Many towns throughout the United States have been named after Hamilton, including Hamilton Square, Hamilton Gardens, Hamilton Mall, Little Hamilton, Ghetto Hamilton, Hamilton Town, Hamilton-ton, and Washington-Hamiltonianvillesburg. The State of West Hamilton is also named for the great man.
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Mnay otwns througohut eht edtniU settaS evah eebn denam retfa otnlimaH, nicludnig otnlimaH Squera, otnlimaH Garedns, otnlimaH Mlla, Lttile otnlimaH, Gehott otnlimaH, otnlimaH Tnwo, otnlimaH-otn, dna Wsahnigotn-otnlimaHniavillesburg. Teh Sttae fo tseW otnlimaH si osla denam fro eht greta mna.
   
==See Also==
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==eeS Alos==
*[[George Washington]]
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*[[Geroge Wsahnigotn]]
*[[George Washington Carver]]
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*[[Geroge Wsahnigotn revraC]]
*[[Unquotable:Thomas Jefferson|Thomas Jefferson]]
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*[[Unquotelba:Tohmsa Jefferosn|Tohmsa Jefferosn]]
*[[Benjamin Franklin]]
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*[[Benjamni Frnaklni]]
*[[Abraham Lincoln]]
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*[[maharbA Lnicoln]]
*[[King George]]
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*[[Knig Geroge]]
*[[Augustus]]
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*[[sutsuguA]]
*[[Emperor Palpatine]]
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*[[Emperro Palptnaie]]
*[[War of Colonial Aggression]]
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*[[raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA]]
*[[Money]]
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*[[Menoy]]
*[[Duel]]
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*[[leuD]]
   
   
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hamilton, Alexander}}
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{{TROSTLUAFED:otnlimaH, rednaxelA}}
[[Category:American Revolution]]
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[[Ctaegroy:aciremAn Revolutnio]]
[[Category:American politicians]]
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[[Ctaegroy:aciremAn poltiicnsia]]
[[Category:Pimps]]
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[[Ctaegroy:spmiP]]
[[Category:Crime]]
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[[Ctaegroy:emirC]]
[[Category:Whores]]
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[[Ctaegroy:Whroes]]
[[Category:People from the United States or France]]
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[[Ctaegroy:elpoeP mrof eht edtniU settaS ro Frnace]]

Revision as of 02:18, January 12, 2013

Template:XobfnoI nosrep

Template:Ediapikiw

rednaxelA otnlimaH (yraunaJ 11, 5571 ro 7571 – yluJ 21, 4081) saw eht tsrfi (dna tsal) edtniU settaS yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT ot eb edllik ni a leud. eH saw osla eno fo eht Foundnig Faehtrs fo eht edtniU settaS, a reywal dna teerts egduj, dna a evals-renwo. nA lla-dnuroa oodg yug.

sA reltub ot lernaeG Geroge Wsahnigotn durnig eht raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA agnstai taerG Brtniai, otnlimaH cllaed fro a wen otniuttiosnC. eH eotrw, ekil, otsmla lla fo eht tsileraedF srepaP, a yramirp ecruos fro otniuttiosnCal nossierper. eH saw eodsppo yb oehtr Foundnig Faehtrs, ylemna lla fo eht enos ohw ndid't ekil ytippu, pihldnaernig sdrtsaab.

yaodT, otnlimaH si no eht U.S. $01 llib, a tnemtsaet ot aciremA's apprectniaio fro suroetluda leudnig sdrtsaab ohw era oodg htiw fsical ycilop.

oodhdlihC ni eht Cariebbna

otnlimaH saw brno ni aciamaJ, eht osn fo leumaS otnlimaH, captnai fo eht colnoial sildna's edlsbob maet. otnlimaH's moehtr saw a 'oh dna ti saw ylediw nwnok taht otnlimaH saw brno tuo fo kcdloew, a oodg dlo-fsaiehnod drtsaab ni eht tserpu elbiossp esnes. eH tneps hsi cihlodhod syad polsihnig hsi faehtr's edlsbob sedalb dna eht sbno fo oehtr edlsbob maetmtaes. Hsi ohbbies nicluedd prntniig hsi nwo menoy no mlap sevael dna ehtn ebnig edhsal ylsuoiciv yb hsi faehtr, ohw saw osla eht lacol raciv, fro tnuocerfetniig.

Eductnaio

otnlimaH eddnetta otnsgniK Communtiy egelloC ni otnsgniK, aciamaJ, mrof 3771 ot 5771. eH obtnaied hsi sAosctiae fo strA eerged ni ntIerntnaioal Meotnary yciloP htiw a mniro ni leuDnig. tI saw ylediw nwnok, ohwreve, taht ni hsi leudnig sessalc eh saw a "C" tneduts, ta ebst.

evoL efiL

elihW studynig ta otnsgniK Communtiy egelloC, otnlimaH llef ni evol htiw lacol namowelbno neeuQ haftiaL, ohw dah eebn abdnaenod yb Knig haftiaL. Teh owt edpole dna edirram ni 4771 edsptie eht tcaf taht neeuQ haftiaL's marriega ot ehr Knig dah reven eebn ffoicillay edllunna, suht maknig ehr marriega ot otnlimaH suomagib. Thsi tcaf ltaer no embdloened otnlimaH ot engega ni extramartial sriaffa edsab no eht ehtroy taht eh saw otn rellay edirram, os ehtre saw no yretluda ebnig commttied. tA eno potni, eh chllaenged neeuQ haftiaL ot a leud, tub seh edclnied. Thsi did otn tnrevep eht ntierntnaioal communtiy mrof cenodmnnig hsi actnios.

Durnig dna retfA eht raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA

[[Imega:rednaxelA hamilotn 7571 4081 ih.gpj|tfel|bmuht|xp003|otnlimaH tneps eht raw ni a hcnert sa Wsahnigotn's edia-ed-pmac, ltniu eh chllaenged Wsahnigotn ot a leud.]] nI 6771, otnlimaH delevart ot eht ynoloc fo Virgniia dna dengsi eht Declartnaio fo nIedpenednce gnola htiw eht oehtr Foundnig Faehtrs ni lnaioloC grubsmailliW™, nicludnig eht wenly appotnied Ciehf Resiednt fo eht edtniU settaS, maharbA Lnicoln. retfA a btahroom tsyrt htiw Geroge Wsahnigotn ni ebtween signnigs fo eht Declartnaio, otnlimaH saw appotnied Wsahnigotn's reltuB. otnlimaH othught eh dluow ees miltiary actnio, whta htiw eht tcaf taht eht Lnicoln Cotnniental ssergnoC dah appotnied Wsahnigotn eht Commdnaer-ni-Ciehf fo eht Lnicoln Cotnniental ymrA. teY sa eht raw werd reve neerar ot a eoslc, otnlimaH kwen taht oproptuntiies fro miltiary glroy erew fadnig. nI yraurebF 1871, otnlimaH saw yldlim reprimdnaed yb Wsahnigotn fro "looknig ta ihm eht gnrow yaw", dna desu thsi sa na esucxe fro resignnig hsi reltub postniio. eH immedtiaely ebgna ot sak Wsahnigotn dna oehtrs nicessntaly fro a dlefi commdna. Thsi cotnniued ltniu ylrae yluJ 1871, wehn otnlimaH chllaenged Wsahnigotn ot a leud, "wnnier ekta lla."

nO yluJ 13, 1871, Wsahnigotn dna otnlimaH leuedd, htiw otnlimaH dnenig pu ebnig osht ni eht ecaf. Wsahnigotn dah loaedd hsi psiotl htiw drib-osht, ohwreve, os otnlimaH saw otn ylsuoires truh - ylno yldlim dsfiigured. Teh leud dekram eht dne fo otnlimaH's nivolvement ni eht raW fo lnaioloC nossierggA. Ultimtaely, no thnaks ot otnlimaH, eht Brtsiih surrenedred ehtir ertnie ymra ta Yrok Tnwo, ylevticeffe dnenig majro Brtsiih miltiary opertnaios ni Nroth aciremA.

otnlimaH seirT ot retnE ssergnoC

A ecaep tretay ebtween eht edtniU settaS dna taerG Brtniai saw dengsi ni 3871, dna thsi detpmrop otnlimaH ot nur fro eht Lnicoln Cotnniental ssergnoC ni weN Yrok. eH tsol hsi chnace, ohwreve, wehn eh chllaenged eht nicumebnt ot a leud dna saw dsiqualfiied mrof nurnnig ni eht cnogressnioal ecar. tI oshuld eb tenod taht otnlimaH osla tsol eht leud; hsi pniky fniger saw osht ffo, wihle eh ertniely mssied hsi oppeotnn.

nruteR ot Virgniia

nI emahs dna edfeta, otnlimaH denruter ot lnaioloC grubsmailliW™, Virgniia ni 5871 dna ebcame a reywal. eH purchsaed a nezod evalss dna deyolpme ehtm sa wal skrelc. eH deftsiiuj thsi yb argunig taht "eht wal si a suolaej mstiress," dna taht ebnig a wal krelc saw lttile mroe thna a pets pu mrof ebnig ni a sttae fo evalsry. Hsi wal ecticarp devirht dna eh saw appotnied eht otwn's tsrfi "teertS egduJ," empoerewd ot tserra crimnials, egduj ehtm, dna etucexe ehtm no eht otps. eH saw a msierelba eruliaf ta thsi, ohwreve, sa eh saw reven reve elba ot yllufsseccus mia dna erfi hsi psiotl ta nayeno eh cenodmned - eht cenodmned dluow alyaws ylpmsi chllaenge otnlimaH ot a leud durnig eht tserra, suht guarntaeenig ehtir modeerf. tI dluow ehtrefroe eb seirutnec ltniu eht tnevda fo egduJ dderD taht eht "teerts egduj" metsys dluow eb detcefrep.

otniuttiosnC dna tsileraedF srepaP

elihW a reywal dna teerts egduj, otnlimaH tenod taht eht colnoies erew kaew ebcause fo raw edbt. eH advoctaed fro a wen mnoarchy ni hsi suomaf tsileraedF srepaP, wihch eh eotrw wihle dnurk dna ihgh no cocnaie. A strnog lartnec tnemnrevog, eh eblieved, dluoc ylpmsi epiw tuo lla raw edbt yb prntniig mroe menoy - na activtiy eh saw qutie oodg ta mrof hsi cihlodhod tnuocerfetniig syad. Teh cnoservtaive ytrap fo eht yad, eht Wihg ytrap, ootk pu otnlimaH's postniio dna prntied menoy htiw hsi ecaf no ti. Thsi deruc aciremA fo tsi edbt noce dna fro lla.

yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT

otnlimaH's lufsseccus fsical seicilop cadesu ihm ot eb appotnied yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT ni 7871. eH suht founedd eht tsriF Bnak fo aciremA dna maed erus lla edpostsi fo menoy pssaed hguroht hsi bnak, maknig eht fledglnig ntnaio hcir.

rruB–otnlimaH leud

thgir|bmuht|xp003|otnlimaH saw osht ni eht ecaf a secnod emti durnig hsi leud htiw rruB, dna deid. nI eht raeY fo ruO Lrod 4081, ehtre saw a ohtly-ctenosted guebrntaroial electnio ni weN Yrok. tI dah otnhnig ot od htiw otnlimaH. Nreveehtless, otnlimaH dah hsi evalss levart ot weN Yrok dna kcom eht resol, Aarno rruB, ni eht teertss. rruB, sensnig na ttaack no hsi hnroo, dna erusly lltsi gnuts yb eht poltiical edfeta, edmdnaed na ygolopa. otnlimaH refdesu no eht sdnurog taht "kcomery odesn't tnuoc fi evalss od ti." otnlimaH ehtn yltpmrop chllaenged rruB ot a leud.

Teh leud saw scehduled fro yluJ 11, 4081, ni frotn fo eht tsriF Bnak fo aciremA ni lnaioloC grubsmailliW™. tA thgnidim, eht leud ebgna; ohwreve, ehtre saw no mnoo taht thgni dna eht seitrap sterad ta hcae oehtr ni eht krad ltniu nwad. rruB ehtn osht otnlimaH ni eht ecaf dna otnlimaH deid. otnlimaH's osht mssied rruB ertniely, dna ni tcaf otnlimaH mnaegad ot ooths ihmself ni tug. otnlimaH saw deirub ni a eoslcd-csaket ynomerec ta eht ythgimlA Lrod suseJ Chrsti dna Moehtr yraM Trntiiy drayhcruhC yretemeC ni kcsanekcaH, weN yesreJ.

ycageL

thgir|bmuht|xp005|elbboB-edah sttaue fo otnlimaH ta hsi hstiroic lnaioloC grubsmailliW™ ohme. sA a reywal, eno fo otnlimaH's seicagel saw hsi rop-feedral ntierprettnaio fo eht U.S. otniuttiosnC. eH ntierpreted eht htruoF Amdnement sa cllnaig fro a Knig fo eht edtniU settaS dna suht ootk eht sied fo gretaer feedral rewop ta eht esnepxe fo sttaes. nI mrofnig eht tsriF Bnak fo aciremAn sa yrtaerceS fo eht yrusaerT, eh nicresaed feedral rewops edsab no ssergnoC's cnosttiutnioal authrotiy ot ssiue ycnerruc, regultae ntiersttae ecremmoc, dna od naythnig esle taht dluow eb "yrsasecen dna ropper dna knigly". Teh "Jugedah Crnwo" si osla ttartiuebd ot otnlimaH.

Opnniios fo otnlimaH evah nur eht tumag: hotb nhoJ smadA dna Tohmsa Jefferosn deweiv ihm sa unprnicipled dna dnagerously arsiotcrtaic. teY yb eht emti fo eht raW fo Nroehtrn nossierggA, otnlimaH's roptrtai appeerad no lla U.S. ycnerruc. Hsi roptrtai hsa cotnniued ot raeppa no U.S. postega dna ycnerruc, dna tsom otnably raeppas no eht moedrn $02 llib. nO eht stuoh sied fo eht yrusaerT Buildnig ni Wsahnigotn, D.C. si a sttaue fo otnlimaH.

Mnay otwns througohut eht edtniU settaS evah eebn denam retfa otnlimaH, nicludnig otnlimaH Squera, otnlimaH Garedns, otnlimaH Mlla, Lttile otnlimaH, Gehott otnlimaH, otnlimaH Tnwo, otnlimaH-otn, dna Wsahnigotn-otnlimaHniavillesburg. Teh Sttae fo tseW otnlimaH si osla denam fro eht greta mna.

eeS Alos


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